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PO Box 5512
CA, 94955
United States
Shirley Molinari


Leading manufacturer of products for winemaking, including enological yeast and bacteria specifically selected to optimize fermentation and your wine style choices.


What sets us apart at Lallemand is our ongoing commitment to research and development and our ability to communicate this information to the oenology world.

In Toulouse, France, we have a team of researchers who conduct fermented beverage related research. We also have teams in Montreal who focus on new strain development, production procedures and more fundamental research. In addition to these in-house efforts, research programs, scientific papers and ongoing contacts link Lallemand with the most prestigious oenology laboratories in Europe, Australia, North America, South America and South Africa.

Use this section of the website to see what's new at Lallemand, discover interesting research, read helpful articles and hear the kinds of questions we are commonly asked.


Lallemand offers over 100 oenological yeasts selected throughout the world. In North America we have over 40 of the more successful yeasts to meet your creative needs while working within your specific winemaking practices.

These following brief descriptions will provide general information on each yeast and what sets it apart from the others under standard winemaking conditions. Also use the Yeast Chart and the Grape and Yeast Cellar pairing guide to help you select the right yeast to fit your grapes, fermentation conditions and stylistic goals.

Malolactic Bacteria Selected from Nature
Lallemand offers two formats of freeze-dried bacteria cultures in North America along with MaloTabs--bacteria in tablet form..

The MBR® form of malolactic bacteria represent a Lallemand acclimatization process that subjects the bacteria cells to various biophysical stresses, making them better able to withstand the rigors of direct addition to wine. The conditioned MBR® bacteria that survive are robust and possess the ability to conduct reliable malolactic fermentation (MLF), even under difficult wine conditions.

The 1-Step® starter kit is a highly effective malolactic starter culture to promote MLF in most red and white wines in a wide range of oenological conditions. The kit contains one of our popular MBR® bacteria and an activator mix that require a short acclimatization protocol to wake-up the bacteria and activate their metabolism.

Unlike the MBR® cultures, the 1-Step® cultures are not preconditioned at our Lallemand bacteria facility and therefore require a simple rehydration/activation step 24 hours before they can be inoculated into the wine.

Popular MBR® bacteria strains, Enoferm® ALPHA, BETA,  Lalvin VP41 and PN4, are now available as 1-Step® starter kit cultures. The 1-Step® cultures perform as well as or better than MBR® cultures, especially under more challenging MLF conditions.



Since Lallemand began producing yeast in the early 20th century, we have understood the importance of providing growing yeast the nutrients they need to survive and reach their maximum potential. Experiences in our own yeast production fermentations laid the groundwork for our nutrient formulations. We have also collaborated with others in the area of yeast growth nutrition and fermentation to attempt to understand the complex and often frustrating interactions in grape must.

Lallemand offers three classifications of yeast fermentation nutrients:

1. Nutrients and Protectants Added to Yeast Rehydration Water
2. Complex Yeast Nutrients for Use During Fermentation
3. Other Yeast Nutrients for Use During Fermentation.



Lallemand offers winemakers a complete range of high-quality enzymes to meet winemaking needs and international quality requirements.

 Lallemand's expertise in winemaking applications focuses on a tailor-made approach that involves:

  • Investigating winemakers' needs throughout our worldwide network
  • In-depth analysis in our enzymology laboratory of all available raw material enzymes
  • Elaborate testing of experimental products at technical institutes and wineries throughout the world
  • Developing new products for specific winemaking applications. Lallzymeâ"¢ microbial-origin enzymes are utilized in winemaking for:
    • Clarifying musts and wines
    • Macerating grapes
    • Increasing the filterability of musts and wines
    • Releasing flavor components
    • Macerating yeast


Controlled Wine Bacteria Production at Lallemand
Controlled Wine Bacteria Production at Lallemand
Controlled wine bacteria production at Lallemand leads to efficient bacteria and high quality wines
Rehydration Protocol - Lallemand
Rehydration Protocol - Lallemand
Rehydrating your selected yeast prior to inoculation is a key step for success. Follow these easy steps for rehydration to encourage a healthy fermentation.
LalVigne Mature
LalVigne Mature
Time lapse video of grape veraison, onset of ripening and color change.
Achieving Malolactic Fermentation
Achieving Malolactic Fermentation
The Wine bacteria Lalvin VP41, isolated in Valpolicella in Italy, stood out as a highly tolerant strain, which can perform under the most difficult winemaking conditions such as very alcohol as well as low pH.
Malolactic fermentation: O-MEGA®
Malolactic fermentation: O-MEGA®
O-MEGA® contributes to produce fresh and fruity wines from high maturity grapes. On normal mature grapes, O-MEGA® reinforces the aging potential. • No production of biogenic amines • Late degradation of citric acid: very low production of diacetyl (no buttery or lactic notes)
Copper Sulfate Use in Organic Vineyards: Are Wine Yeast and Bacteria Affected by This Fungicide?

In 2017, the organic vineyard areas had tripled in 10 years and approximately 5% of worldwide vineyards are now under organic certifications (Figure 1). The growth is also reflected in consumer consumption of organic wines, not only in Europe but all over the world where in Sweden for example, the growth is 51%, in France 36%, and in Australia, 120%.

Copper compounds, usually copper sulfate mixed with lime, have been used by grape growers since the late 1800’s to fight fungi and bacteria on vines. For organic growers, who cannot use other fungicide sprays, copper sulfate is still an effective tool against downy mildew. With the increased production of organic vineyards in the world, the use of this fungicide has also grown with the expansion of this type of farming. Consequently, it is possible to find this heavy metal to carry over from the vineyard to the cellar, during all stages of the vinification process. The amount found varies. For example, if we compare a vineyard without any copper-based sprays, then the level of copper in the juice is likely to be less than 0.5 mg/L. If copper-based sprays are used, then the level of copper can vary depending on the number of applications, total dose applied and the time between the last application and harvest. The copper content of the juice could therefore range from less than 1 mg/L to higher than 15 mg/L.

Read Full Winemaking Update

News Archive

Restarting Stuck Malolactic Fermentation
10 October, 2019

Problem with Malolactic fermentation?  Try the Latest Easy and Fast Protocol for White, Rosé and Red Wines from Lallemand 

STEP 1The use of specific yeast cell walls Reskue™ will help to detoxify the wine by trapping the main inhibitors, mainly pesticides residues and medium chain unsaturated fatty acids.

STEP 2In order to ensure an optimal growth of the new bacteria inoculum, ML RedBoost™ is essential. It has been developed to bring the optimal levels of specific nutrients for wine selected bacteria in terms of amino acids and peptides and also to provide protection of selected wine bacteria against the inhibitory effect of certain polyphenols.

STEP 3 - After several years of experiments of stuck worldwide wines, our R&D department showed that a double dose inoculum of LALVIN VP41 MBR™ is the best answer to restart stuck or sluggish MLF.

This protocol is efficient when wines parameters are not outside of known limiting conditions (high SO2 content, high alcohol content, low pH, possible excessive amount of pesticides residues, possible presence Chitosan in certain conditions).

Note: Lallemand has also developed a “quick fermentability test” (48-72 hours test). This quick test can be run to determine precisely whether a wine may complete fermentation once re-inoculated. Please, contact Lallemand for further information.

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Ionys™: More Acidity, More Balance!
26 August, 2019

Acids are very important structural components of wine. If a wine is too low in acid, it tastes flat and dull. If a wine is too high in acid, it tastes too tart and sour. Usually, the winemaker can easily manipulate the acidity.

Acidity in Wine

Total acidity (TA) of a wine allows the determination of a value for acidity that is consistent to predict wine tasting and possible issues, such as infection by spoilage microorganisms. Most red table wines are about 0.6% total acidity while white wines are usually a little higher.

Although total acidity and pH are related, they represent different ways of measuring acidity of wine. If the pH of a wine is too high, 4.0 or above, the wine becomes unstable with respect to microorganisms.

Low pH inhibits microorganism growth. Tartaric acid is often added to fermenting grape juice during winemaking process to ensure that an acceptable final pH can be realized, as some acid is lost during fermentation, thus reducing the total acidity and raising the pH.

Read Full Brochure Here

The Fermentation of Fructose in Winemaking
23 July, 2019

What is fructose:

Fructose is a 6-carbon polyhydroxyketone. It is an isomer of glucose; i.e., both have the same molecular formula (C6H12O6) but they differ structurally. It is one of the sugars consumed by yeast during wine fermentation.

Why is it important in wine?

Glucose and fructose are the main fermentable sugars in wine must. During alcoholic fermentation, yeasts convert most of the glucose and fructose present into alcohol and CO2. Grape musts contain equal amounts of glucose and fructose, and their total concentrations typically range from 160 to 300 g/liter.

S. cerevisiae is a glucophilic yeast, preferring glucose to fructose. During fermentation, glucose is consumed at a higher rate than fructose, and the proportion of fructose increases as fermentation progresses. This can lead to imbalances in the wines, and under the stressful conditions found at the end of fermentation, make it more difficult for wine yeast to utilize this non-preferred sugar. Therefore, knowing how the fructose utilization varies in wine yeasts is important for the maintenance of a steady fermentation rate at the end of alcoholic fermentation and limit the risk of stuck fermentation.

What are the factors influencing fructose utilization during fermentation?

Nitrogen: During alcoholic fermentation, sugars are consumed mainly during the stationary phase. During this phase, the available nitrogen gradually becomes less available, and since it is an essential nutrient involved in the transport of sugars into the cell via protein synthesis, this partially explains why both the yeast metabolism and the fermentation activity (Salmon, 1996) slow down. The alcohol level also gradually increases, becoming toxic to the yeast cell, and the use of fructose is even more compromised. It is therefore recommended to have a minimum level of 150 mg/L of YAN or supplement with complex nutrition.

Glucose/fructose ratio (GFR): The kinetics of sugar utilization by S. cerevisiae during fermentation are largely driven by sugar transport, and glucose is typically consumed at a faster rate than fructose. In sluggish fermentations, the rate of fermentation is reduced after most of the glucose is consumed, and fermentation can become stuck with a significant concentration of fructose remaining. According to the literature, the level of residual glucose in stuck wines is 10 times lower than the fructose concentration. According to Gafner and Schûtz (1996), it is possible to predict stuck fermentation when the glucose/fructose ratio (GFR) is under 1.0.

Yeast strain: It has also been shown that the preference for glucose over fructose is yeast dependent, and the discrepancy between glucose and fructose consumption is not a fixed parameter, but is dependent on the yeast’s genetic background and on external conditions (Berthels et al, 2004). Research has confirmed the genes coding for the hexose transporters in yeast. Under oenological conditions, several genes are involved in sugar transport, which is regulated by a large, multi-gene family called HXT. There are 20 HXT genes. Hxt1 and Hxt7 are the main transporters. Hxt2, Hxt6 and Hxt7 are high-affinity carriers, whereas Hxt1 and Hxt3 are low-affinity carriers. Several other Hxt carriers have intermediate affinity. Both the high-and low-affinity carriers have greater affinity for glucose than fructose, which may affect the rate of utilization of those hexoses. Hexose concentrations in the medium will influence the expression of individual HXT genes (Perez et al., 2005; Guillaume et al., 2007). It has been shown that Hxt3 has the highest capacity to support fermentation (Luyten et al., 2002) and studies have also identified that this gene is indeed responsible for the capacity for consuming fructose among certain yeasts (Guillaume et al., 2007).

Click here to read full article

Optimal Wine Yeast Nutrition for Maximum Aromatic Expression in Chardonnay
10 June, 2019

Wine yeasts are able to produce volatile aroma compounds from precursors found in the grape musts. Despite this ability, the wine yeast needs an adapted nutrition management (type of nutrient and timing of addition) that will maximize this secondary metabolism. Work done in collaboration with INRA (Montpellier, France) has shown that the type of nutrient, and the timing of addition during alcoholic fermentation has an important impact on the production of fermentative aroma compounds.


Stimula Chardonnay™ has been developed from our understanding of the impact of yeast autolysate components on wine yeast during alcoholic fermentation. It is composed of 100% yeast autolysate fractions formulated to supply a balance of amino acids, sterols, vitamins and minerals known to optimize the volatile ester biosynthesis by the yeast. Vitamins for instance are known to be important yeast growth factors, and they contribute to metabolic pathways, including aroma compounds biosynthesis. Their uptake from the juice by the yeast is by specific membrane transporters (Paalme et al, 2014).

Not only are the constituents of the yeast autolysate important, but also when it is added during alcoholic fermentation. It has been demonstrated that the yeast switches from a primary growth metabolism to a secondary aromatic metabolism of ester biosynthesis at the end of the growth phase. Thus adding Stimula Chardonnay™ at this moment will enhance this metabolism switch and optimize the biosynthesis of aroma compounds and support the bioconversions of precursors to volatile esters until the end of fermentation. As shown in figure 2, the production of the ester isoamyl acetate is greater when Stimula Chardonnay™ is added at the beginning of the stationary phase (1/3 through fermentation) compared to when added at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation (T0).

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With SILKA™, Invite Silkiness into Your Red Wines
23 May, 2019

SILKA™ a New Wine Bacteria to Produce Silky Red Wines.

Winemakers now know that malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an essential stage in the winemaking process and that certain wine bacteria play a key role in shaping the organoleptic profile of their wines. With this new bacteria isolated in Rioja (Spain), Lallemand Oenology expands its range of natural selected wine bacteria which also share the capacity to contribute to the sensory profile of red wines. With its unique organoleptic properties, SILKA™ allows to produce very fast complex and silky red wines.

A Wine Bacteria Perfectly Well-Suited to Warm-Climate Regions

Naturally suited to the warm climate wine conditions, SILKA™ resists to high alcohol degrees while demonstrating regular fermentation kinetics. SILKA™ protects the organoleptic cleanliness of wines. It indeed does not have the ability to produce biogenic amines and does not release ethyl-phenols precursors (animal notes), due to its negative cinnamyl-esterase activity.

Unique Properties to Soften Tannins

Due to its unique sensorial properties, SILKA™ confers structure and volume to red wines while reducing herbaceous notes, bitterness and astringency. SILKA™ allows 0% red wines to fully express their fruity aromas and to rapidly reveal silky tannins.

Read the full article here:

Using the Lallemand Ionys Wine Yeast for Acidity Management in Wine
02 May, 2019

Over recent decades and in line with global warming, we have been seeing changes in the maturity levels of the grape berries that impact the sensory qualities of wines. Indeed, sugar levels have progressively increased, directly resulting in rises in the alcohol levels of wines, which can reach an additional 2-3%. In parallel, a reduction in the acidity of wines has also been observed, giving rise to heavier, less balanced wines. These developments run contrary to consumer trends and public health recommendations. Moreover, some countries have imposed taxes on wines with an alcohol content of more than 14%.

An Original Approach of Evolutionary Adaptation

Lallemand, in collaboration with the Sciences for Enology laboratory of INRA in Montpellier, has therefore implemented an innovative selection process in order to obtain a non-GMO yeast whose metabolism would be diverted towards production of glycerol and organic acids, at the expense of ethanol production. Glycerol is a colourless, odourless compound, often associated with taste sensations of volume depending on its concentration in wine.

The strategy adopted to obtain a new yeast meeting these criteria was that of evolutionary adaptation. This approach is perfectly suited to the context, making it possible to naturally select yeasts with specific properties, beyond the phenotypes of already-known strains. The principle consists of simply encouraging cells to adapt their metabolism to stressful conditions and then selecting those that meet the criteria.

Yeast cells were placed in culture under conditions of high osmotic stress. To combat these difficult conditions, they can respond by activating a metabolic pathway, the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) pathway. This pathway allows for the overproduction of glycerol, which plays the role of osmoprotectant of cells. The yeasts are subcultured many times in this medium with high osmolarity, until several hundreds of generations are created. Over these generations, some cells will undergo spontaneous mutation that will give them a selective advantage and allow them to better resist the conditions of the medium. At the end of the process, the culture will be considerably enriched with these new, better adapted, glycerol-over producing yeasts, which will then be easy to select.


Wine Bacteria Under Investigation - Biocontrol Agents Against Brettanomyces
02 April, 2019


The contaminating yeast Brettanomyces is a problem, notably for red wines. This yeast is very opportunistic and can survive and multiply in difficult conditions throughout the life of the wine. Hygienic conditions and microbiological controls can inhibit its growth, but will not eliminate it. The goal then is to limit its development, which will in turn limit the production of volatile phenols. The use of SO2 is the preferred method to control its development, however there is a recent trend to reduce the use of SO2 in wine, as well as a general increase in wine pH, which reduces its efficacy. Moreover, there is a great variability in the resistance of SO2 among different Brettanomyces yeasts. The inoculation with our selected bacteria is a good option to protect the wine during the fermentation process, and new studies also show their potential to protect wine during the ageing steps against Brettanomyces re-contamination.


Previous studies have shown the clear impact of early inoculation of selected wine bacteria on the reduction in final volatile phenols levels. In 2014, the OIV recognized that co-inoculation of selected lactic bacteria could help to reduce the phase between alcoholic fermentation (AF) and malolactic fermentation (MLF) and consequently limit the development of Brettanomyces. Recent studies in collaboration with IFV (France) show that some selected bacteria can have a direct inhibition on Brettanomyces growth.

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Product Spotlight: RESKUE™
15 January, 2019

"Specific inactivated yeast with highly adsorptive properties for treating stuck fermentations." 


A new selected wine yeast cell-wall to adsorb fermentation inhibitors.

Grape must composition may have inhibiting toxic compounds that affect yeast viability and fermentative activity, and that are responsible for sluggish or stuck alcoholic fermentation. Inhibiting toxic compounds, such as Short and Medium Chain Fatty Acids (SMCFA) have been widely described for their inhibition of alcoholic fermentation. Actually, yeast cell-walls are commonly used to eliminate these SMCFA in order to enable a complete and steady fermentation. Pesticide residues (fungicide, herbicide, insecticide) can also seriously affect yeast viability and compromise the end of fermentation. Recent studies also showed that they can negatively impact the production of aromas (namely esters) and the wines fruit character (Noguerol-Pato et al, 2014). Reskue™ is a selected wine yeast cell-wall, well characterized at both biochemical and physical properties level, and possessing a high sorption capacity. Reskue™ is an efficient tool to remove SMCFA and pesticide residues. 


Learn More



New Protocol for Restarting Stuck Alcoholic Fermentations
18 December, 2018

Our new protocol for restarting stuck or sluggish primary fermentations utilizes two of Lallemand’s newest innovative products: ReskueTM and Uvaferm 43 RestartTM.



OptiMUM Red: Fermenting Positive Effects on Color, Mouthfeel and Fruitiness
30 November, 2018

imageRecent research has given us a much better understanding of how yeast and phenolic compounds interact in red wine, enabling us to better characterise the biochemical and biophysical properties of yeast with unique wine relevant characteristics. We have described the development of a specific yeast autolysate with unique wine sensory impacting properties. A yeast autolysate (MEX-WY1) was prepared from a wine yeast with distinctive characteristics. Studies using model grape must revealed the involvement of mannoproteins in the soluble fraction of the autolysate in the formation of stable complexes that are contributing to color stabilisation and reduction in wine astringency.

Winery trials demonstrated that addition of the specific autolysate MEXWY1 at the beginning of fermentation had a positive effect on wine sensory characteristics such as colour, mouthfeel, and fruitiness in red wine. MEX-WY1 has been released as commercial product, OPTI-MUM RED™. The research work described in this article is from a collaboration between INRA/Montpellier Supagro, LISBP/INSA Toulouse and Lallemand.


Read the full article here

Special acknowledgement to Master student Elissa Abi Habib


Fermenting Positive Effects on Colour, Mouthfeel And Fruitiness
25 October, 2018

Development of a new, innovative, specific yeast autolysate to improve the quality of red wine.

Consumer demand for fruity red wines with intense colour and good mouthfeel continues to grow. Aging on lees is a widespread traditional winemaking technique aimed in part at reducing astringency and bitterness while increasing body and aromatic length and complexity. Aging on lees can also help stabilise the colour of red wines. During this step, winemakers reap the many well known benefits—including the release of mannoproteins— provided by adding dead or dying autolyzed yeast (Rodriguez et al., 2005). To avoid the inconvenience of traditional aging on lees, a practice has developed over the past 15 years where specific inactivated yeasts are added to promote the release of polysaccharides (Guadalupe et al., 2007, and Rodriguez-Bencomo et al., 2010). The concept that certain polysaccharides can bind with tannins and thereby reduce the astringency of wines has been around for a number of years.

Read the full article. 

Wine Bacteria Under Investigation
24 September, 2018


Selected wine bacteria must be efficient as soon as they enter the must or wine to complete malolactic fermentation. It means that they must survive and grow in the must or wines to rapidly convert malic acid into lactic acid, as well as contribute to the wine sensory profile.

In order to achieve this goal and based on our strong expertise in bacteria production, we developed a specific bacteria production process called « MBR™ process ». This MBR™ process developed from our research on the physiological and biochemical answers to stress by MLB, provides robust and efficient adapted wine bacteria, to inoculate directly into the tank without rehydration, with a good MLF performance.

One of our 8 production plants for bacteria is solely dedicated to wine bacteria. Each of our 30 different Oenococcus oeni or Lactobacillus plantarum selected for wine, has a specific production protocol that has been optimized for their best efficacy.


Nutrients & Protectors under investigation
01 August, 2018


Our research has shown the role of the nutritional environment on the aromatic metabolism of wine yeast. Based on these results, specific nutrients have been developed to maximize the yeast capacity to up-take aroma precursors from grapes and to optimize their bioconversion to volatile varietal aromas. Added at the beginning of the fermentation, these nutrients stimulate efficiently the enzymatic activity of the yeast, increasing the revelation of varietal aromas such as volatile thiols.



Achieving Malolactic Fermentation in difficult Wine Making conditions
13 July, 2018

The Wine bacteria Lalvin VP41, isolated in Valpolicella in Italy, stood out as a highly tolerant strain, which can perform under the most difficult winemaking conditions such as very alcohol as well as low pH.

See more here :

S.I.Y Under Investigation
29 June, 2018

News & Innovation on Specific Activated Yeast

Organic Winemaking with 2018 Lallemand OMRI listed products
29 May, 2018

Listed products may be used in certified organic production according to the USDA National Organic Program (NOP) Rule.


Unravelling the Mysteries of Cold Soaking The Role of Grape Microflora
21 May, 2018

June 13, 2018 | 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
Food Innovation Center | 1207 NW Naito Pkwy #154, Portland, OR 97309
Registration is $75 and includes refreshments & handouts

Speakers: Dr. Vincent Gerbaux1, Dr. James Osborne

While cold soaking is a process that many winemakers employ during the production of Pinot noir wine, the impact of this technique on wine quality and how to manage this process is relatively unknown. Join us for this half-day workshop where we will examine the winemaking technique of cold soaking and discuss some of the latest research investigating the role of grape microflora during cold soaking.

Topics to be covered include:

  • History of the cold soaking process in Burgundy
  • Impact of yeast present during cold soaking on Pinot noir wine volatiles
  • Utilizing non-Saccharomyces yeast to prevent spoilage issues during cold soaking
  • Tastings of cold soak trial wines

To register, please click here and fill out the contact and payment details. Register soon as space is limited.

Vincent Gerbaux is a Wine Microbiologist with over 30 years' experience researching wine bacteria and yeast. He joined the ITV (Technical Institute of Vine and Wine, now called IFV French Institute of Vine and Wine), in 1985 then joined IFV Beaune in 1988. Vincent manages an ongoing project at IFV selecting strains of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast for winemaking applications.

James Osborne is an Associate Professor and Enology Extension Specialist in the Food Science and Technology Department at Oregon State University. James focues on the impact of wine microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria, Brettanomyces, and non-Saccharomyces yeast on wine quality. In addition, James also teaches undergraduate and graduate classes in support of the enology and viticulture program at Oregon State University.

Oregon State University Extension Service offers educational programs, activities, and materials without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, or disability as required by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Oregon State University is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

This workshop sponsored by...


Lifetime Achievement Award presented to Indianan Ellie Butz
12 March, 2018

Lancaster, Pa.—In spite of a nor’easter moving up the Atlantic coast, a near-record breaking crowd of more than 1,060 people attended the seventh Eastern Winery Exposition (EWE) at the Convention Center in Lancaster, Pa. on March 6-8. At the industry celebration dinner held Wednesday evening, the conference presented its Lifetime Achievement Award to Ellie Butz, a microbiologist in Indiana who... Read full article at:

News & Innovation on Wine Bacteria
12 February, 2018

The MBR™ process is synonymous with pre-adaptation of selected wine bacteria to different wines conditions. It assures a strong survival of bacteria and their rapid growth in the must or wines, crucial criteria to achieve a good start and complete MLF after direct inoculation into wine.



Wine yeast - A privileged partner
06 July, 2017

It is hard to believe that only 100 years ago the powers of yeast were yet unharnessed: The process of fermenting foods was more alchemy than science, its results often unpredictable. Since then distinguished scientists such as van Leeuwenhoek, Lavoisier, Gay-Lussac, Pasteur, Buchner and Koch have uncovered the extraordinary CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO READY THE FULL ARTICLE

Wine yeast - A privileged partner
06 July, 2017

It is hard to believe that only 100 years ago the powers of yeast were yet unharnessed: The process of fermenting foods was more alchemy than science, its results often unpredictable. Since then distinguished scientists such as van Leeuwenhoek, Lavoisier, Gay-Lussac, Pasteur, Buchner and Koch have uncovered the extraordinary CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO READY THE FULL ARTICLE

Wine bacteria and the Art of Mastering sensory potential
14 June, 2017

Malolactic bacteria possess the ability to affect wines in a positive way, both texturally and sensorially. Of the many fermentation-derived volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma and flavor, the ester profile is of major importance for fruity sensory properties and overall quality of wine. In particular, certain ethyl and acetate esters have been shown to be key contributors to the berry fruit characteristics of red wine and modulate wine ester profiles and fruity sensory properties. Ester hydrolysis and synthesis can be catalysed by esterases and many wine bacteria have been shown to produce esterases with high activity towards water-soluble short-chain esters (Sumby et al., 2012). READ THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

30 May, 2017

OPTIMUM RED™ is a new innovative product from Lallemand, to provide greater availability of polysaccharides in your wine. OPTIMUM RED™ is a specific yeast autolysate that combines the unique properties of wine yeast cells and the effects of mannoprotein extraction treatment (MEX), creating greater accessibility of polysaccharides.

More polysaccharides from OPTIMUM-RED™, rounder wines

The early formation of complex polysaccharide-polyphenol chains results in red wines that are more intense in color, have more round mouthfeel with decreased perception of astringency.

Adding OPTIMUM RED™ at the beginning of fermentation increases the availability

of polysaccharides when polyphenols are being released and diffused, maximizing the formation of

complex polyphenol-polysaccharide chains. The formation of stable, soluble complexes between

polyphenols and yeast mannoproteins has been recently established (Mekoue et al., 2016). The resulting wines are rounder and the astringency perception is reduced.

Optimum Red™ is used at the beginning of fermentation at 20-40g/hL.

To learn more about this product and where to find it, please visit our website

About Lallemand

A leading producer of nutrients and select natural yeasts and bacteria and a distributor of winemaking enzymes, Lallemand is a privately held Canadian company with divisions all over the world. The Oenology Division in Toulouse, France, dedicates a large part of its operations to research and development, both internally and in collaboration with eminent research institutes.

Four products from Lallemand Oenology win awards at Intervitis Interfructa
10 March, 2017

IONYSWF™, MLPrime™, Malotabs™ and Bactiless™ received special awards and Innovation awards at INTERVITIS INTERFRUCTA HORTITECHNICA . The products were honored for their contribution towards progress in the wine, fruit juice and specialty crop industries. The Innovation Award is granted by the German Winegrowers' Association in cooperation with DLG (German Agricultural Society) for technical processes, systems, products or services.


Selected wine yeast naturally increasing the acidity perception of wines fermented from low acid musts resulting in more balanced wines. SPECIAL AWARD - Bactiless™ Non-allergenic, fungal chitosan derivatives that help to control potential spoilage bacteria populations in wines. INNOVATION AWARD Malotabs™ An easy to add tablet form of wine bacteria, to make malolactic fermentation inoculation of barrels efficient and convenient.

INNOVATION AWARD MLPrime™ Unique cultured Lactobacillus plantarum wine bacteria to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) when co-inoculated in higher pH red musts without the risk of acetic acid production.

About Lallemand

A leading producer of nutrients and select natural yeasts and bacteria and a distributor of winemaking enzymes, Lallemand is a privately held Canadian company with divisions all over the world. The Oenology Division in Toulouse, France, dedicates a large part of its operations to research and development, both internally and in collaboration with eminent research institutes.

Lallemand simplifies the process of restarting stuck fermentations, with Uvaferm 43 Restart™
26 September, 2016

Building on its experience as a producer of wine yeasts, Lallemand has developed a production process that makes yeast naturally more resistant to stress caused by high alcohol content and other hostile conditions related to stuck fermentation. Lallemand now offers a new choice for restarting the fermentation process: UVAFERM 43 RESTART™.

Benefits of UVAFERM 43 RESTART™ yeast

When fermentation stops mid-stream, the must generally contains much more fructose than glucose, the form of sugar that yeasts prefer. The ideal solution up to now has been to use an alcohol-tolerant fructophillic yeast with a high fermentation capacity, such as Lallemand’s Uvaferm 43™, selected by Institut Rhodanien in France.

Thanks to an innovative pre-acclimatization process developed by Lallemand and tested and approved by Institut Rhodanien, the yeasts’ resistance to toxic conditions of stuck fermentation is naturally increased. The UVAFERM 43 RESTART™ yeast cells are more robust and acclimatize more quickly after inoculation. This in turn greatly simplifies the process of restarting the fermentation.

Combined with good oenological practices, UVAFERM 43 RESTART™ enables winemakers to effectively resolve most stuck fermentation problems in a few steps while helping to preserve the quality of the wine.

About Lallemand

A leading producer of nutrients and select natural yeasts and bacteria and a distributor of winemaking enzymes, Lallemand is a privately held Canadian company with divisions all over the world. The Oenology Division in Toulouse, France, dedicates a large part of its operations to research and development, both internally and in collaboration with eminent research institutes.

MALOTABS™, the first tablet for malolactic fermentation in barrels
07 June, 2016

MALOTABS™, the latest innovation from Lallemand Oenology,is now available to make a winemakers’ work easier with one small tablet containing the proper concentration of selected wine bacteria.  Malolactic fermentation in barrels is now easy and fast with MALOTABS™, a specific wine bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, in tablet form for white and red wines.


Malotabs – Easy-to-use and Easy-to-add

In collaboration with Eurotabs, a tablet making expert, Malotabs™ can be added directly to the barrel with no prior preparation. The tablet containing the specific wine bacteria, Oenococcus oeni,dissolves quickly and homogenously, ensuring that malolactic fermentation carries through to completion. Available for white and red wines, Malotabs™ are recommended for fresh and fruit driven wines with balanced mouthfeel. Please consult our video on how to use Malotabs™



To learn more about this product and where to find it, please consult our website


Grow Your Wine--LalVigne vineyard applications for wine quality
06 May, 2016

 Grow Your Wine is the phrase closely associated with the LalVigne product line--a specific selection of wine yeast fractions to be used as a 2 time application foliar spray for wine quality.  Two products, LalVigne LA for aroma and LalVigne LM for maturity are available.  These articles were recently published. 

Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma

Enhancing Phenolic Maturity of Syrah with the Application of a New Foliar Spray

Lallemand Bacteria are EASY to live with!
30 September, 2015

Lallemand is one of the of the leading companies in the world producing bacteria for a wide range of markets, including the pharmaceutical industry, human health, animal nutrition, agriculture, bakeries, the cheese-making industry and oenology. Specialty bacteria production requires very demanding processes in order to obtain high quality products...

Click on the below PDFs to read more!


08 September, 2015

In our latest edition of The Wine Expert, we discuss the What, Why & When of nitrogen in the fermentation process. 

CLICK HERE to read the full article.

New, innovative and natural options to viticulturists and winemakers
15 June, 2015

LalVigne® is a new product line from Lallemand’s worldwide research and development network. It provides new, innovative and natural options to viticulturists and winemakers that were unknown until now.


LalVigne is an organic yeast derivative product that is applied in the vineyard as foliar spray at veraison. The yeasts used in its production were sourced from the Lallemand wine yeast collection. A single vineyard treatment with a LalVigne spray consists of two applications. The first is done at 5% veraison and the second 10–12 days later. 

LalVigne is easily suspended in water and applied using a spray rig or hand sprayer. In warmer wine regions ideal conditions for spraying are before the heat of the day. In the cooler regions, a window of 24 hours between rains is needed to get maximum effect. Intermittent rain after this point will not affect the effi cacy of the product.



All winegrowers face the harvest challenge of achieving phenolic and enological maturity at the same time. Application of LalVigne has been shown to encourage the concentration of aroma precursors in grapes and it can have a noted impact on the timing of the phenolic maturity.


Cool Climate Scenario

In cooler climates, phenolic maturity can be diffi cult to reach. Complicating factors can include the onset of rain, early frosts, the grape variety itself, and vines susceptible to Botrytis. In many cases, the harvest date ends up being determined by external factors and not by grape maturity. 

A 2014 Washington State trial involved treating a Merlot vineyard with LalVigne. In this trial, the winemaker picked the treated vineyard six days earlier than the control block. Picking was done based upon the winemaker’s judgment about the fl avor and perceived phenolic maturity of the grapes. Wines made from the treated and control blocks demonstrated strong similarities, despite the large disparity in harvest dates. The opportunity for the winemaker to harvest a week earlier and achieve the “same” wine greatly reduces the risk of quality loss, due to unforeseen weather conditions.


Warm Climate Scenario

In warm climates, optimal sugar levels are often reached far in advance of other critical factors such as phenolic maturity. This means that the harvest date is often chosen primarily due to potential alcohol levels rather than other wine quality parameters.

Trials were done on Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon in one of the warmer growing regions in California.

For both varieties, the control and treated blocks were picked at the same time. The decisions to pick were based on sugar levels. Blind sensory tastings showed differences in color, mouthfeel and aromas, with tasters preferring the wines that were treated with LalVigne. The vineyards yielded 10 tons/acre, thereby allowing the winery to improve maturity on vines with heavy yields.



For the last several years, Lallemand has been conducting trials with LalVigne sprays in vineyards all over the world. The goal was not only to establish effi cacy, but also to gauge enological impacts that may not have been observed in the lab.


Observed Impact on Mouthfeel and Volume

The trial below (Figure 1) was conducted on Merlot and Syrah vines in Languedoc in 2012. A tasting was done by 20 professionals at the Centre de Viticulture et d'Oenologie de Midi-Pyrénées. In the LalVigne treated Merlot and Syrah, an increase in mouthfeel and volume was observed. The Merlot also showed an increase in aromatic intensity.

Observed Impact on Aromatic Intensity

A Sauvignon Blanc trial done in Spain in 2012 (Figure 2) was tasted by a panel of 20 professional winemakers. The wine made from the LalVigne treated vineyard scored better in mouthfeel, roundness and aroma complexity.

In 2013, trials were done on Sauvignon Blanc in the Southern Hemisphere. Laboratory analysis on the LalVigne treated samples showed an increase in thiols.

Observed Impact on Green Characters (IBMP)

The natural decrease of methoxypyrazine (3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine) or IBMP, during the ripening phase is a good indicator of aromatic and phenolic ripeness for grapes. It has been observed that virtually all the IBMP present in grapes ends-up in fi nished red wines, regardless of winemaking practices. Thus, vineyard practices have a huge impact on fi nished wines.

Trials from the 2014 U.S. harvest were tested for differences in IBMP. It was observed that wines from the LalVigne treated vineyards showed a trend toward lower levels of IBMP. Furthermore, as we increase our trials, the trend seems to be that a greater reduction of IBMP is occurring when the baseline amount of IBMP is higher. Figure 3 below illustrates this. 

Lallemand Winery Update on malolactic bacteria.
08 June, 2015

Read the current Lallemand Winery Update #2 2014 with the latest information on malolactic fermentation and Brettanomyces.

Lallemand Oenology announces updated resources for 2015 with a new Lallemand Wine website and a global update for the Lallemand Wine App.
14 January, 2015

Check out for the website and go to the Apple App Store or to Google Play to download the Lallemand Wine App

View the Lallemand press release here:.



Evaluation of the impact of a fungal-origin chitosan preparation (No Brett Inside) on Brettanomyces for wine aging
13 October, 2014

Brettanomyces  bruxellensis  development  in  wines  is  a  continuous  threat  for  wine  quality . This  undesirable  yeast  is able to develop during aging under difficult conditions, and to produce negative aromatic compounds such as volatile phenols related to sensory descriptors as animal-like, horse, barnyard, band aid and medicinal. Chitosan of fungal origin has been introduced as a new potential tool to control Brettanomyces in winemaking [1]. Recent studies showed the impact of chitosan application (racked off after 10 days) on contaminated wines, leading to the elimination of Brettanomyces cells [2]. Due to the necessity to control wine microbiological stability during aging in barrels, our research focuses on a new, long term application of an enological chitosan preparation, to prevent wine from Brettanomyces along the aging period (up to 9 months) at both experimental winery and at winery-scale. 

Read the full poster here!

Lallemand Presents - SO2 Production By Wine Yeast During Alcoholic Fermentation
05 August, 2014

Sulphur dioxide is used during several steps of the winemaking process. It is added to prevent the unwanted development of microorganisms, and as an anti-oxidant to inhibit polyphenol oxidases (laccase and tyrosinase).

However, sulphites may have a negative impact on wine sensory properties, can delay the onset of malolactic fermentation, and can cause some health concerns in case of high concentrations in the final wine or due to human sensitivity. That’s why SO2 levels in wine are regulated. With the introduction of innovative yeast, managing sulphur compounds (SO2 and H2S) during fermentation can be a strategic decision.

Read the full article here!

Lalvin ICV OKAY®: A new approach for the molecular basis of sulfide and sulfite production by wine yeasts
18 July, 2014

Enological yeasts contribute greatly to the final aromatic balance of wines through the production of volatile compounds of interest; nevertheless, they can also be responsible for the production of negative off-flavours, such as sulfur compounds. Sulfite and sulfide are two of those compounds whose production has to be controlled. The sulfate assimilation pathway has been widely studied, however, little is known about the molecular basis responsible for the differences in sulfite and/or sulfide production between yeasts strains. In this project, we implemented a QTL mapping approach to identify the genetic determinants of the low SO2 production of a wine yeast strain.

Click here to view a detailed poster of the mapping strategy! 




A New Tool to Fight Against Brettanomyces and Preserve the Aroma of the Wine
20 May, 2014

Brettanomyces bruxellensis are a threat to wine quality. These yeasts are capable of developing in difficult media (high alcohol, nutritional deficiencies, high SO2), at all stages of vinification and are responsible for the production of undesirable aromatic compounds: volatile phenols (4-ethyl-phenol, 4-ethyl-guaiacol, 4-ethyl-catechol). These compounds give rise to the perception of disagreeable ‘animal-like’ notes (leather, stable, barnyard) or pharmaceutical notes (Band-Aid medicinal).

Even at low population levels (1 to 1000 CFU/mL), Brettanomyces constitute a threat, as they can produce these volatile phenols at any moment. When the concentrations of these phenols are weak or below perception thresholds, they can mask the wine’s bouquet and compromise its varietal expression, and its intensity. In many regions, the volume of wine affected by Brettanomycesis relatively significant.

Currently, different preventive means are implemented to fight against Brettanomyces:

  • Good management of SO2related to the wine pH
  • Optimized alcoholic and malolactic fermentations
  • Lees management,
  • Barrel hygiene and storage…

But these means are not always effective. No Brett Inside (chitosan of fungal origin) represents an innovative and efficient tool for fighting against Brettanomyces.

Continue Reading the full article here!

To view the data sheet click here!

Varietal Aromas Resulting from Alcoholic and Malolactic Fermentations
24 April, 2014

The interaction between microorganisms and the grape must is a complex mechanism involving a multitude of substrates and products, including some that have major sensory impacts. The nutrients present in the grape must (e.g., carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus compounds, vitamins, minerals and trace elements) create the conditions necessary to ensure the proliferation of microorganisms. Particularly, microorganisms use the sugars and amino acids, which have the metabolic effect of producing multiple metabolites from non-volatile esters (mostly polyols and acids) and volatiles esters (e.g., alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, fatty acids, sulphur and phenols), which also impact the aroma and the “bouquet du vin” (Swiegers et al. 2005). The microorganisms interact with, notably, the various aroma precursors present in the grape by targeting, more specifically, the glycosides, conjugated cysteine and the phenolic compounds (Eglinton et al. 2004, and Dillon et al. 2004).

This issue of Winemaking Update summarizes the XXIVes Entretiens Scientifiques Lallemand. These scientific meetings, held in 2013, discussed the impact of wine yeasts and bacteria on varietal aromas.

Click the image to the left to read the full article!

Learn about the amazing biological system that occurs in the process of grape growing
22 January, 2014

The microflora of grapes form a complex biological system where a great variety of yeast's, fungi, and other bacterias interact in many ways. Then during the pressing of the grapes, the biofilm on the grapes' surface is put into contact witht the juice. With the contribution of the microorganisms in the winery, this new environment is a fully active medium. Through the complex interactions of inhibition and stimulation occuring among the yeasts and bacteria the must is gradually transformed into wine.


Click the Photo to the right to read more about this interesting and educational article!





LALVIN ICV OKAY®: Wins a ‘Palmarès de l’Innovation’ Citation Award from SITEVI 2013
02 October, 2013

Toulouse, France, September 17, 2013. The new wine yeast, Lalvin ICV OKAY®, received a Citation Award in the category of Innovation from SITEVI 2013.

Lalvin ICV OKAY ® is the result of a collaborative study between the scientific INSTITUT COOPERATIF DU VIN ICV Group, Lallemand, SupAgro and INRA Montpellier. The innovation is based on successive backcrosses of an excellent fermenting wine yeast and a yeast with very low production of sulfur compounds such as H2S. The resulting Lalvin ICV OKAY ® yeast combines reliable fermentation performance and very low production of SO2, H2S and acetaldehyde. Lalvin ICV OKAY ® is recommended for aromatic white and rosé wines, ensuring low levels of volatile acidity, promoting aromatic esters and bringing freshness and balance in the mouth.

SITEVI 2013 is an international exhibition for the Vine‐Wine, Fruit‐Vegetable and Olive producers. It will take place from Tuesday 26 to Thursday 28 November 2013 at the Montpellier Exhibition Centre, France.


Lallemand – a leading producer of wine yeast and bacteria selected from nature, and their nutrients, and a distributor of oenological enzymes – is a privately owned corporation with divisions operating around the world. The Oenology Division, based in Toulouse, France, has a major focus on research and development, both in‐house and in collaboration with renowned research institutes.

Fermentation Expertise at your fingertips. The Lallemand Wine App is now optimized for iPad and Android.
20 September, 2013

Montréal, Canada, September 19, 2013 – The Lallemand Wine App is now available for ipad and for Android users. The version was updated and the design adapted to optimize your experience.

The functionalities remain the same as with the app for iphone, and you will be able to learn all about your fermentation products supplied by Lallemand. The wine yeasts and bacteria, their nutrients, protectors, enzymes, are all listed and you can find the best products for your wine.

As of today, the products listed are those found in North America, Australia and New Zealand, South America and South Africa.

Winemakers in these countries can access information related to the products available for them. The app showcases the same features for these territories, and offers the same advanced search and recommendations for varietal pairings.

Also available is the ‘The Wine Bacteria Sensory Profiling’ tool which is very popular and helps winemakers select the best wine bacteria for malolactic fermentation – based on their winemaking conditions and the desired wine style – and achieve a particular sensory definition.

You can download the Lallemand Wine app from the Apple® App Store, or by following this link:

You can download the Lallemand Wine app from Google Play, or by following this link:

About Lallemand Lallemand – a leading producer of wine yeast and bacteria selected from nature, and their nutrients, and a distributor of oenological enzymes – is a privately owned corporation with divisions operating around the world. The Oenology Division, based in Toulouse, France, has a major focus on research and development, both in-house and in collaboration with renowned research institutes.

Source: Gordon Specht Contact:

11 September, 2013

Toulouse, France, April 2, 2013 – Resulting from a collaboration between Lallemand and the ICV-INRA-Sup’Agro (France), the Lalvin ICV OKAY ® YSEO® yeast is a hybrid obtained by directed breeding between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the quantitative trait loci (QTL) method associated with the production of SO2 and other sulphur containing compounds.

Because of its very low nitrogen requirements and excellent resistance to extreme temperatures (from 12°C to 14°C minimum and 28°C to 30°C maximum), Lalvin ICV OKAY ® yeast conducts regular and complete fermentation, even with very ripe grapes.

Lalvin ICV OKAY ® offers a real advantage to the winemaker: it produces very little acetaldehyde and consequently, there is a better SO2 management by reducing the doses normally required. Its volatile acidity also remains low even under difficult conditions (high alcohol, low NTU, difficult temperatures).

Because it was selected specifically for its ability to produce very little SO2 and other negative sulphur compounds, the use of Lalvin ICV OKAY ® will result in wines with a clean sensory profile. The wines are more focused on the fruit characters, with more volume, as well as reduced dryness and bitterness

With Lalvin ICV OKAY ®, winemakers now have the opportunity to better manage SO2 levels, while maintaining stable and high-quality wines.


Lallemand – a leading producer of wine yeast and bacteria selected from nature, and their nutrients, and a distributor of oenological enzymes – is a privately owned corporation with divisions operating around the world. The Oenology Division, based in Toulouse, France, has a major focus on research and development, both in-house and in collaboration with renowned research institutes.

- 30 -

Source: Lallemand

Contact: Gordon Specht

Explore The Universe Of Yeast Biodiversity!
17 July, 2013

Sequential inoculation with non-Saccharomyces yeast offers new possibilities for boosting sensory quality. 

Lallemand is expoloring the use of non-saccharomyces with aromatic properties that are unique from those found in Saccharomyces, in order to contribute more comple aromatic profiles while also ensuring fermendation security. 

Click the image below for the complete e-book. 

15 May, 2013

Toulouse, France, May 6, 2013 – Lallemand continues to innovate with a new solution for yeast protection, developed to meet the specific needs of the often difficult fermentation conditions of white and rosé wines. Go-Ferm Protect Evolution® – part of the Natstep® line of patented products – was designed to ensure the vitality and viability of wine yeasts used in white or rosé wine fermentation.

The special inactivated yeasts in Go-Ferm Protect Evolution® are natural sources of ergosterols, vitamins and magnesium, and increase yeast vitality and ethanol tolerance. These nutrients are often missing during white or rosé fermentation due to clarification and other pre-fermentation treatments. When added during rehydration, they are absorbed into the yeast membranes. As shown in many scientific studies, a healthy yeast membrane is key for the ability of wine yeast to carry out regular and complete fermentation, and to survive the difficult winemaking environment. Moreover, the specific formula found in Go-Ferm Protect Evolution® has repeatedly demonstrated significant increases in the levels of volatile thiols (3MH and 3MHA) in such varietals as Sauvignon Blanc and Colombard. Furthermore, the impact of Go-Ferm Protect Evolution® on yeast viability until the end of alcoholic fermentation is even greater than an oxygen addition performed at one-third point of the fermentation.

Rehydration with added Go-Ferm Protect Evolution® facilitates white and rosé wine fermentation and increases volatile aromatic compounds such as thiols. It also helps eliminate the need for added oxygen during fermentation and influences positively the final quality of the wine.


Lallemand – a leading producer of wine yeast and bacteria selected from nature, and their nutrients, and a distributor of oenological enzymes – is a privately owned corporation with divisions operating around the world. The Oenology Division, based in Toulouse, France, has a major focus on research and development, both in-house and in collaboration with renowned research institutes.

- 30 -

Source: Lallemand

Contact: Shirley Molinari

The Lallemand Wine App – New Version, New Tools, New Products
22 April, 2013

Montréal, Canada, April 16, 2013 – The popular Lallemand Wine App had to undergo a technical update and must be downloaded again.

We regret any difficulty you may have experienced accessing the app recently. To download the updated Lallemand Wine App,  please delete the old version, then scan the QR, click on the link below or visit the Apple® App Store and look for Lallemand : Wine.

As before, the app covers North America, Australia and New Zealand, South America and South Africa. Winemakers in these countries can access information related to the products available for them. The app showcases the same features for these territories, and offers the same advanced search and recommendations for varietal pairings.

The Wine Bacteria Sensory Profiling tool is very popular and helps winemakers select the best wine bacteria for malolactic fermentation – based on their winemaking conditions and the desired wine style.

In addition, a new section entitled the Knowledge Centre features the latest technical information and protocols available in different markets.

An expanded third version of the Lallemand Wine App is in the works, with new tools for winemakers available for more winemaking countries.

You can download the app from the Apple® App Store, or by following this link:

About Lallemand

Lallemand – a leading producer of wine yeast and bacteria selected from nature, and their nutrients, and a distributor of oenological enzymes – is a privately owned corporation with divisions operating around the world. The Oenology Division, based in Toulouse, France, has a major focus on research and development, both in-house and in collaboration with renowned research institutes.


Source:                                  Lallemand

Contact:                                 Shirley Molinari



Overcoming limiting wine conditions, vintage challenges and maximizing sensory impact!
18 March, 2013

Use the Lallemand Oenological Bacteria Wheel as a source of information to assist you in selecting the appropriate malolactic bacteria to satisfy stylistic choices as well as to minimize challenges. The wheel contains information collected from years of global experimentation, research and winery use of specific Lallemand malolactic bacteria selections and applications. Use the wheel as a tool for help in overcoming limiting wine conditions, vintage challenges and maximizing sensory impact.

CLICK HERE for full, interative version.


Stuck Fermentation Help
17 October, 2012

Once again it's that time of year. Our phones are ringing off the hook with stuck fermentation calls. Too many calls, so many problems, and not enough hours in the day! So we put toether a new section of the website called "the laboratory" where you can go for help with fermentation problems. We hope that the sage advice from Lallemand's Yeast Guru, Clayton Cone, and his lackeys will help you solve (or hopefully avoid) fermentation problems. 

Click here for stuck fermentation help!

Oenomag Volume 1, Number 3 - Now Available for Download
12 September, 2012

In search of the essential.  27,000. That's how many times the words mineral and minerality appear in the more than 259,000 reviews on That’s twice as often as the word fruity. During the most recent Lallemand Tour with the theme “Minerals and Wine” from January 17 to 20, international wine journalist Cees van Casteren showed that, indeed minerality has become more than just a passing fad or trend in the world of wine.

The terms mineral and minera-lity have become increasingly important—so much so that they have become ubiquitous in wine tasting. But why the infatutation with minerality? During the Lallemand Tour seminars, aroma sculptor and selfproclaimed philosopher Michaël Moisseeff introduced a new way of thinking. Perhaps the omnipresence of minerality is in reponse to our pressing need to fi nd the essential, as if our senses were rejecting the excessive amounts of noise, colours, smells, and tastes that we face on a daily basis. Minerality is reminiscent of vanitas art, a genre that was popular in the Baroque period when vanity and opulence ran rampant. Vanitas paintings make reference to death, resurrection, time, sand, and all things timeless.

Read the rest of this story as well as other valuable information by downloading the full edition. Click Here for full version. 

Entretiens Scientific 2012--focus on Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts
29 May, 2012

On April 26, 2012 in Monestier, France, researchers reviewed the importance of biodiversity and presented the most recent discoveries regarding the utilization of non-conventional yeast and bacteria in winemaking.  Read the press release for an overview of the presentations and request the published proceedings once they are available.

Click Here for the full report.  

Lallemand Reduless® Approved for Organic Wine Production
29 May, 2012

Montréal, May 16, 2012 – Another Lallemand product is now listed to comply with the OMRI Standards Manual and the OMRI Policy Manual, which are based on the requirements of the USDA National Organic Program Rule (7 CFR Part 205). The approved product for OMRI listing is Reduless® ..

Reduless® is a unique yeast derived product with immobilized copper developed to reduce sulphur compound off-flavours and improve wine quality. It will reduce levels of hydrogen sulphide, diethyl sulphide, dimethyl sulphide, mercaptans and other sulphur related off-flavours in wine. Those compounds can lead to strong negative assessment by consumers and depreciation of the wine. Reduless® can be used on red, white and rosé wines and will enhance overall quality and fruity character of the wine by reducing its vegetal and reduction notes. The mouthfeel character is also improved.

This new OMRI approval is an important and continuing step for Lallemand as it provides organic winemakers with quality products. Reduless® will join join other OMRI listed products such as Opti-White®, Opti-Red®, Optilees®, Go-Ferm® Protect, Fermaid O™, GoFerm®, Noblesse™ and Fortiferm®..

The Organic Materials Review Institute is a national non-profit organization in the United States that determines which input products are allowed for use in organic production and processing. OMRI-approved and -listed products may be used in operations certified “organic” under the USDA National Organic Program (

About Lallemand

Lallemand – a leading producer of wine yeast and bacteria, and their nutrients, and a distributor of oenological enzymes – is a privately owned Canadian corporation with divisions operating around the world. The Oenology Division, based in Toulouse, France, has a major focus on research and development, both in-house and in collaboration with renowned research institutes.

- 30 –

Source: Lallemand

Contact: Shirley Molinari

10 May, 2012

The evidence is stronger than ever. Malolactic bacteria are important tools to influence the sensory profiles of wines. It has been long known that malolactic bacteria (ML) are essential to reduce the acidity of wine through malolactic fermentation. But now, our on-going research is showing their sensory potential as well. Whether a Chardonnay is more or less buttery, or a red wine has intense red berry aromas are now confirmed by numerous trials and research results.

1. Accentuate the fruitiness of red wines

The effects of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on wine aroma and chemical properties of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon at the AWRI were explored by inoculation with different selected Oenococcus oeni. Significant compositional differences occurred in response to the different MLF treatments and strain dependent changes in volatile aroma compounds were observed. Increases in fruity esters were associated with increases in fruit related sensory attributes. These trends were observed over three vintages in Cabernet Sauvignon fruit sourced from various vineyards (Figure 1).

The impact of the ML bacteria starter is important, but it is also adapted to the different terroir, making the wines all different from one another due to the terroir effect. In all cases, ML bacteria are able to modulate the red berry aromas to different ... read more.

The entire report and corresponding graphs can be viewed by clicking read more , or by clicking the link below.



ML Wines 2012 Competition Award Winners
22 March, 2012

The Iberian division Lallemand Malolactic Fermentation School recently organized the second annual ML Wines competition in Madrid Spain.  This event is to heighten awareness of the winemaking quality impact of controlled malolactic fermentation through the use of selected malolactic bacteria and the timing of inoculation.  Three categories of wine were judged, Category I is malolactic ferementation with co-inoculation and no oak contact, Category II is malolactic fermentation with sequential inoculation and no oak contact and Category III is malolactic fermentation with either sequential inoculation or co-inoculation with oak contact.  View the results from the following link: 

Practical Winemaking Information - Inaugural edition
05 March, 2012

Available now, the first  practical winemaking information in the new series from Lallemand called The Wine Expert.  In The Wine Expert number 1, the topic is Glycerol and Winemaking.   The topic of glycerol production by enological yeasts is fully explored to allow a better understanding for optimizing utilization of the enological tools currently available in winemaking.


Click the image below to open the full document.



Yeast SO2 production potential
30 November, 2011

Next in a series of technical notes from Dr Andrew Markides our associate from Lallemand Australia.  Australian Technical Note 112 contains information to assist in yeast selection based on the characteristic for SO2 production and  SO2 binding potential.  Please read this information found in the Lallemand Resource section on WIN.

Specialty Inactivated Yeast Enriched in Glutathione
08 November, 2011

The utilization of specialty inactivated yeasts (SIY) in winemaking has gained popularity in recent years, and their uses are varied. For example, SIY can be used as protectors during yeast rehydration and as a nutrition tool during fermentation. As we understand more about the yeast cell constituents, the production process, the characterization of each yeast strain and their unique fractions, we can obtain very specialized inactivated yeasts to yield specific results under defined conditions. Such is the case for the inactivated yeasts that can trigger specific responses during fermentation due to their unique functionalities. This issue of Winemaking Update will focus on a new SIY designed for white and rosé wines.

1. A quick review: What are inactivated yeasts?

An inactivated yeast preparation is a dry product made from oenological yeast that has been treated to suppress its fermentation capacity. The inactivated yeast material is then processed using different techniques, such as enzymatic and/or physicochemical ... Click Here to read the full Winemkaing Update PDF

From Theory to Practice: Sugar to Ethanol Conversion by Wine Yeast
13 October, 2011

Andrew Markides, our colleague in Lallemand Australia has written a number of Technical Notes. Technical Note 803A reviews sugar to ethanol conversion by wine yeast - from theory to practice. One of the basic conclusions is that for 56 tested wine yeast strains, the differences in sugar to alcohol conversion vary no more than 0.51% v/v of alcohol.

Some basic observations reported in the literature:



  • It is a known fact that YEAST (type & strain), vary in their ability to utilise carbohydrates in the formation of ethanol and other by-products

  • The Gay-Lussac Equation 

    6H12O6  -----> 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2

    180g Sugar is converted to 92g Ethanol and 88g Carbon Dioxide.  
    BUT, this can only be achieved if there is no yeast growth and ethanol is not lost as vapour. In practice, ethanol yields observed are 90 to 95% of theoretical.



  • A number of studies have attempted to accurately predict the sugar to alcohol conversion ratio during wine alcoholic fermentations. However in the absence of a fermentation model that takes all contributing factors into consideration, it has not been possible to declare a reliable sugar to alcohol conversion factor.

  • The generally acceptable approach to estimating potential alcohol is to use the measurement of mass per unit volume (density). However we must not forget that sugar is not the only substance in grape must that contributes to density. Density measures (e.g. hydrometry) are used to approximate the amount of sugar present in grape juice.

  • Using a density measure, during a normal wine yeast alcoholic fermentation, approximately 17g of sugar per litre produces 1% (by volume) of ethanol.

  • The higher the conversion ratio, the lower the alcohol yield

  • The official EEC sugar to alcohol conversion ratio is 16.83g sugar per litre for 1% v/v alcohol


Lallemand Investigations:


  • Laboratory based investigations, using a standard fermentation environment and 56 wine yeast strains, have shown differences in sugar to alcohol conversions of no more than 0.51% (v/v). These results are consistent with sugar to alcohol conversion ratios between approximately 16.5 to 17.2gm Sugar per litre for 1% v/v Alcohol.

  • Revealed that the sugar to alcohol conversion rate is significantly influenced by the fermentation conditions. With any one yeast strain, the quantity of alcohol and carbon dioxide formed from carbohydrates, as well as the nature and concentration of by-products, vary with fermentation temperature, extent of aeration and Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen (YAN) levels.

  • For example when individual yeast strains were studied under low and high YAN levels, the sugar to alcohol conversion rate was not consistent. For example, some yeast strains had higher conversion rates at the LOW YAN level, while other strains had higher conversion rates at the HIGH YAN level. The Lallemand study concluded that due to the various influencing factors, characterisation of sugar to alcohol conversion rates for wine yeast remains inconclusive. Perhaps the only exception is that non-cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast DO DIFFER from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The S.cerevisiae strains generally are more efficient at converting sugar to alcohol.



Watch for additional notes to be posted in the future.  Click here for a PDF version of the report

27 September, 2011

No Brett Inside is a non-allergenic, naturally derived product which had been demonstrated to be effective for Brettanomyces control.  Read the Lallemand 2011 Winemaking Update #1 for information about No Brett Inside--which has received FDA GRAS status under GRAS notice number GRN 000397.  

2011 Winemaking Update #2 - OptiMUM White
20 September, 2011

New Lallemand Winemaking Update #2, introducing OptiMUM White.  Review the significance of Glutathione and the applications for SIY (Specific Inactivated Yeast) for use during fermentation. Click here to download the PDF file.

Aromatic Intensity, Complexity, Mouthfeel and Longevity of Wines = a World of Possibilities
26 July, 2011

Level2® TD contains two species of yeast selected for their complementary properties – Torulaspora delbrueckii strain 291 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 734. When used for sequential inoculation, these yeasts encourage aromatic intensity, complexity and mouthfeel in wines, fermentation after fermentation.

1. Aromatic intensity, complexity, mouthfeel and longevity
Numerous trials have been carried out over several years on musts made with different grapes, including chardonnay, sémillon and maccabeu, which were inoculated sequentially with T. delbrueckii 291 and its complementary S. cerevisiae 734 yeast in the Level2® TD kit. Level2® TD confirmed its capacity to reveal a wide range of aromatic esters, including linear or branched fatty acid esters. In particular, two esters, ethyl propionate, and ethyl 2-methyl propionate, are found in the majority of cases to be in higher concentrations in wines fermented with the Level2® TD, compared to a vast array of different selected yeasts. It was shown that the overexpression of those two esters is directly correlated to the action of T.delbrueckii 291, and not the work of S.cerevisiae, or even other T.delbrueckii. On the other hand, isoamyl acetate, did not vary consistently and significantly from one trial to another. This finding is key in explaining the gain in aromatic complexity by the increase in ester production that are responsible for the delicate fruity and floral aromas. Limiting the production of amylic notes (banana, english candy) associated with isoamyl acetate was important since it could overcome the delicate fruity and floral aromas (Figure 1).

Note that the esters revealed by Level2® TD are also those considered the most stables over time, while the acetate esters hydrolyze more quickly during storage (Baumes and Schneider 2009).
Level2® TD sequential fermentation kit contributed to enhance the fruity and pastry aromas in wines as shown in Figure 2. The most interesting effects of the synergy between these yeasts are the aromatic complexity and the intensity of the mouthfeel in the wines from white grape varietals.

To see the full report with corresponding graphs and charts, please download the PDF version.

A Constant Pursuit of Excellence, Flexibility and R&D
26 July, 2011

Since the 1970s, Lallemand has focused its specialty fermentation knowledge on developing high quality active dry yeasts for the worldwide oenology industry. Soon after, the company started developing wine bacteria, fermentation adjuncts and specialty inactivated yeasts. The Lallemand range of oenology products is most widely known under the LALVIN®, UVAFERM® and ENOFERM® brand names. In fact, Lallemand is still the only major supplier of yeast or bacteria that is a primary producer of both.

Lallemand owes its success to its constant pursuit of excellence, flexibility and ongoing investments in research and development. Lallemand offers customers an extremely broad range of high quality products.

Lallemand's ISO 9002 certified wine-yeast production facilities are located in Grenaa, Denmark, and Montréal, Canada. Oenology bacteria are produced in a specially accredited facility in Aurillac, France, and in Montréal. The plant in Vienna, Austria, is dedicated to the production of specialty yeasts. Using processes specific to each strain, the yeast cultures are fermented and undergo high-density concentration and granulation. Yeasts are then fluid bed dried and bacteria are freeze dried. Lallemand products pass 20 rigorous quality tests before leaving the factory, and are traceable for three years after production.

To offer customers the finest possible products, Lallemand places particular importance on R & D.

Research begins internally:

  • A team based in Toulouse, France, conducts fermented beverage- related research in cooperation with oenological institutes throughout the world.
  • Teams based at the Montréal plant and the Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI) in Montréal develop new strains and production procedures, and carry out more fundamental research.

The interface between researchers and professionals:
Research programs, scientific papers and ongoing contacts link Lallemand to the most prestigious microbiology laboratories in Europe, Australia, North America, South America and South

Lallemand has an active information policy, which includes:

  • The Entretiens Scientifiques Lallemand. Every year, top microbiology and oenology specialists are brought together to share current research on a particular theme; cooperative technical progress is stimulated through dialogue among these specialists and other professionals drawn from wine-producing countries throughout the world. The proceedings from this annual symposium are published for distribution to our clients.
  • Winemaking Update. This short document is published three times a year to update oenological knowledge and provide information on the latest developments.
  • Detailed product information sheets and scientific articles promote greater understanding.
  • Up-to-date research, product data and other useful information can be found at

Lallemand boasts a range of over 200 different yeasts and bacteria strains developed for wine, spirits (e.g., Cognac, rum, brandy, whisky and fruit alcohol), beer, cider and industrial alcohol obtained from different substrates.

Yeast for oenology:
Inspired by observing the extraordinary natural diversity of fermenting organisms, in the late 1970s Lallemand began selecting and producing yeast strains specific to oenology. Lallemand's product range currently includes 150 different wine yeasts, each carefully selected among the diverse native microflora in winegrowing regions. Most of the yeasts available for wine fermentation are now grown under an inovative, optimized production process called YSEO® for Yeast Security Optimization. This process is particularly important in today's winemaking conditions.

The Lallemand range of yeasts allows winemakers the flexibility to make wines according to their own criteria and preferences.

These include:

  • Reliable fermentation
  • Respect for regional diversity through the full expression of the potential of the grapes and the complexity of aromas
  • Technological effects through the release of aromatic precursors, and to enhance colour stability, mouthfeel and volume
  • Prise de Mousse for Champagne and sparkling wines
  • Restarting stuck fermentations.

Yeast for cider and distilled spirits:
Several specialty yeasts are available for traditional alcoholic ciders and fruit-based spirits.

Oenological bacteria:
Lallemand has produced oenological bacteria since the mid- 1980s, and offers a range of highly concentrated freeze-dried bacteria, available in different forms, for malolactic fermentation, including MBR®, 1- STEP® and STANDARD. Recent research focuses on matching specific bacteria strains with specific yeasts to give the winemaker the desired sensory impact.

The Lallemand range of oenological bacteria gives winemakers the ability to choose the culture that is best for their needs and constraints. These include:

  • The availability of time and equipment
  • The biochemical characteristics of the wine to be treated
  • Production cost objectives
  • The wine style desired.

Developed through its international network and biotechnology expertise, Lallemand offers a range of enzymes (Lallzyme®) for settling, clarification and extraction.

Fermentation nutrients and specialty inactivated yeast:
FERMAID® is an original and unique compound made from inactive yeast and other special ingredients. Whether used to avoid sluggish and stuck fermentations, or to restart a vat where fermentation has ceased, FERMAID® improves both fermentation performance and sensory characteristics.

A new range of nutrients (Go-Ferm Protect®, OptiRED® and OptiWHITE®, Opti'Malo® Plus and Acti-ML®) has now been released.

Lallemand has regional offices located in most of the major fermented beverage-producing regions.

The men and women in the Lallemand network are in close daily contact with the researchers and users of Lallemand products in their regions. Regional Lallemand team members serve their customers' needs, provide training and offer oenological advice. Their work is carried out in collaboration with a network of recognized distributors and specialists who operate in the heart of
each wine region.

If you need further information, please contact us.

Balanced Nutrition for Healthy Alcoholic Fermentation
09 March, 2011

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for smooth alcoholic fermentation (AF). Numerous studies have shown that nitrogen has a positive impact on the growth and fermentation activity of yeast (Bell et al. 1979, Ough and Lee 1981, Bezenger and Navarro 1987). Deficiencies in yeast-available nitrogen (YAN) in the must significantly increase the risk of sluggish or stuck fermentations because they can arrest protein synthesis in the yeast cells. We consider a must with an initial sugar level of about 200 g/L to be deficient when its YAN concentration is about 150 mg/L (Henschke and Jiranek 1993). A YAN deficiency in the must can also cause the yeast to increase the production of H2S (Henschke and Jiranek 1991). This edition of Winemaking Update focuses on the impact of balanced nutrition on alcoholic fermentation.

1. Nitrogen Sources and Their Impact
2. The Impact of Different N2 Sources on Fermentation Kinetics
3. The Impact of Different Nitrogen Sources on the Sensory Profiles of Wines

Read the the Complete Article Here

Contact us for product availability at or contact Scott Laboratories for current pricing at

Scott Laboratories distributes the Lallemand line of yeast and bacteria including Lalvin, Enoferm, Uvaferm and Vitilevure as well as the Level 2 Solutions non-saccharomyces yeasts.  They also offer Lallemand fermentation nutrients, Lallzyme enzymes, the Style lines and specific natural yeast derivatives including OptiMUM White, Opti-Red, Opti-White, Reduless, Noblesse, Booster Blanc and Booster Rouge plus the fungal origin chitosan product No Brett Inside.

Title Name Email Phone
Area Manager Gordon Specht 707-526-9809
Technical Support Shirley Molinari 707-484-0919
Product Distribution Scott Laboratories 707-765-6666
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More Acicidy More Balance

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Lalvin IONYS yeast

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Article OMR 2018 ENG

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September Under Investigation PDF

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September Under Investigation image

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Aug 2018 Under Investigation PDF

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malolactic bacteria in tablet form

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Enhancing Phenolic Maturity

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article published 2016

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Experts in bacteria production

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Experts in bacteria production

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Wine Expert: Nitrogen

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Malolactic bacteria update for winemaking

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New website and APP

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The biodiversity and microbial flora of wine, the indefinitely small is still surprising.

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Wine Expert #5 USA

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Wine Expert #4 US2 coinoculation

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Wine Expert#2 - USA fructose in winemaking 2012.pdf

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Wine Expert -1 Glycerol USA.pdf

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Issue Volume 1, Number 3

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The XXIIIes Entretiens Scientifiques Lallemand: Focus on Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts

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The evidence is stronger than ever. Malolactic bacteria are important tools to influence the sensory profiles of wines. It has been long known that malolactic bacteria (ML) are essential to reduce the ...

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Competition award winners for ML Wines 2012 held in Madrid, Spain

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During the fermentation of the sugars in the must, the yeast synthesizes in addition to ethanol and CO2 various other by-products, of which the most abundant is glycerol. Once the glucose has entered the cell, it is converted into dihydroxyacetone.

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Yeast SO2 production & binding potential

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Sequential inoculation strategy with Torulaspora delbrueckii 291 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 724 information

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Sugar to ethanol conversion by wine yeast

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No Brett Inside for use to control Brett

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Scientific Meeting , Lallemand 2011

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Organic Nutrition

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Sequential inoculation with a non-Saccharomyces yeast and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

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Yeast-Bacteria Interactions. Part 1. The Impact on Malolactic Fermentation

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Practical Answers to a Perplexing Topic: A discussion organised at Vinitech-Sifel 2010 by O2inWines™

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Proposed Yeast/Bacteria Pairings Adapted to the Type of Wine

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Using selected wine yeasts is an important tool in the management of alcoholic fermentation.

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Making wines which express the varietal nature inherent in a region.

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Lallemand Biologicals Approved for Organic Wine Production

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Strategies for Successful Malolactic Fermentation

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Wine Yeasts and Alcohol Production: Current and Future Challenges

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The YSEO Process

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Four Easy Steps for Rehydrating Yeast and Inoculating Must

A new selected wine yeast cell-wall to adsorb fermentation inhibitor Grape must composition may have inhibiting toxic compounds that affect yeast viability and fermentative activity, and that are responsible for sluggish or stuck alcoholic fermentation. ...

Use the Lallemand Oenological Bacteria Wheel as a source of information to assist you in selecting the appropriate malolactic bacteria to satisfy stylistic choices as well as to minimize challenges. The wheel contains information collected from years of global experimentation, research and winery use of specific Lallemand malolactic bacteria selections and applications. Use the wheel as a tool for help in overcoming limiting wine conditions, vintage challenges and maximizing sensory impact.

CLICK HERE for full, interative version.