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1647 Alvarado St.
San Leandro
CA, 94577
United States
Raul Pena

TerrAvion Makes Farming More Profitable!

TerrAvion Makes Farming on Every Farm and Vineyard More Profitable!

Every week in the 2020 growing season, TerrAvion will be capturing over 100M acres of row-level imagery and delivering the contracted images to growers and agronomists overnight so they can target scouting, vary inputs, and intervene early on the inevitable issues on every block or field. Unlike satellites, TerrAvion is detailed enough to do agronomy, and unlike drones, TerrAvion is cost-effective for a professional agronomy program.

TerrAvion helps growers take a high-tech approach to improve yield and revenue, with the largest cloud-based aerial imaging and data analytics service for agriculture. TerrAvion provides growers from small family farms to the largest agribusinesses with current images and data that accurately detail the conditions of every acre, helping to identify problems early before they impact yield. 


Founded in 2013, TerrAvion's investors include Merus Capital, Initialized Capital, 10x Group and Y Combinator. For more information, visit or follow @TerrAvion.

Subscription High-Resolution Imagery for Vineyards

TerrAvion delivers subscription high-resolution imagery to vineyards.


Our core subscription image delivery service is called OverView, which delivers high-resolution aerial imagery, overnight, throughout the growing season. This allows growers to have an actual up-to-date natural color, infrared, and thermal picture of all of their blocks as well as synthetic maps (NDVI) and analysis.

TerrAvion contracts with flight providers, flying small planes, to fly a sensor that TerrAvion designs and integrates. TerrAvion plans and monitors the routes to ensure quality delivery. Our company’s technology is focused on managing and processing millions of acres a day, overnight, at a very low cost.

We deliver our service first and foremost through our API (application programming interface–an endpoint for computers to talk to each other). Our own web and mobile software, as well as partner software, call this API to deliver maps and images to our client.


Natural Color Image Layer
Natural Color Image Layer
This natural color image of an estate vineyard provides an excellent operational map, especially as it changes through the growing season. It is the same kind of image you would take with your camera or what your eye would see from a plane. It has a high-resolution, so you can see row-level detail from your computer screen.
Vegetation Index (NDVI) Layer
Vegetation Index (NDVI) Layer
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a remote sensing index used to detect plant vigor and stress, leaf area, biomass, etc. It compares the amount of red light to the amount of infrared light being reflected at any point. Plants are uniquely efficient at reflecting light in a way that increases the value of this ratio. Healthy vegetation (chlorophyll) reflects more near-infrared (NIR) and green light compared to other wavelengths. TerrAvion imagery provides a standard NDVI and a dynamic NDVI layer, that can be modified with various color maps to show the most information for your block.
Thermal image layer of a vineyard in August
Thermal image layer of a vineyard in August
Thermal image layers show variation in temperature across any given block. These temperature variations are often indicators of soil moisture Thermal images are the foundation of most water-stress indexes.
Color-infrared Image Layer of a Vineyard in August
Color-infrared Image Layer of a Vineyard in August
Imagery produced as a result of sensing electromagnetic radiations emitted or reflected from a given target surface in the infrared position of the electromagnetic spectrum (approximately 0.72 to 1,000 microns). Color Infrared images show vegetative area because nearly every plant reflects infrared light at a constant rate.
Changes Visible Over the Growing Season
Changes Visible Over the Growing Season
These images show the monthly changes visible with TerrAvion\'s normal color, NDVI, thermal and infrared image layers.
TerrAvion Case Study Constellation Brands Sonoma
TerrAvion Case Study Constellation Brands Sonoma
TerrAvion sat down with viticulturist Tony Vertolli at Constellation Brands Sonoma. Here are his top three use cases for TerrAvion High-Resolution imagery.
Power user: Ste. Michelle Wine Estates

Our customers inspire TerrAvion products. Ag retailers, agronomists, growers, or ag-tech partners; we are focused on building tools that they need. Through relationships with our involved users, we learn how they are finding success in using TerrAvion imagery to power their operations. We like to share that information with the rest of our user base so that they, too, can get the most out of their investment in TerrAvion imagery. In our new Power User blog series, we will highlight the success stories of some of our most progressive users.

Ste. Michelle Wine Estates


TerrAvion customer Ste. Michelle Wine Estates is the largest group of wineries in Washington State and one of the largest wine producers in the U.S.A. They are the single largest producer of Riesling in the entire world. Ste. Michelle established many growing regions in Washington and helped build a global market for the state’s wine. Ste. Michelle uses TerrAvion high-resolution subscription aerial imagery to increase its operational efficiency and profits. One particular way that Ste. Michelle employs TerrAvion imagery is to aid its differential harvesting operations. 

Differential Harvesting

Vineyards produce fruit of various qualities throughout a block. Wines can be crafted by choosing specific characteristics in the fruit and managing the harvest to capitalize on those traits.  For instance, smaller berries in a red variety have a strong correlation to fruitful flavors and deep red color, while larger berries have a correlation with more vegetal and some green flavors.  By separating these flavors at harvest, they are able to give the B-TOP-RIGHT-Differential-harvest-of-Cabernet-Sauvignon-grapes-with-Korvan-3016XLwinemakers different types of fruit to craft the wines that they are after. Different characteristics are not necessarily high quality versus low quality, but many times they do allow the winemaker to select fruit that will ultimately end up in a premium tier wine.

The goal of differential harvesting is to harvest different types of fruit separately to preserve the value of the grapes. If high-quality grapes can be identified and targeted for differential harvesting, they can be isolated from lower-quality grapes, conserving their distinctive quality characteristics. In order to employ differential harvesting, two things are needed; data capable of distinguishing between two grades of wine grapes and machines capable of harvesting the different grades of grapes. Ste. Michelle uses TerrAvion imagery to identify and target different characteristics in the grapes. TerrAvion NDVI imagery reveals patterns in the vineyard blocks that Ste. Michelle further analyzes to determine grape quality. 

Read more about TerrAvion NDVI

Once different types of grapes have been identified, the challenge then becomes harvesting them separately on a large scale. To do this, Ste. Michelle uses a “signaling system” directed by NDVI maps. At harvest, two gondola drivers follow each other down each row, each designated to harvest a different type of grape identified by NDVI imagery. The two grades of fruit are then separately delivered to the winery, where two different wines are produced. Ste. Michelle estimates that performing differential harvesting on a 10-acre block can pay for all of their imagery costs for an entire season. 

Interested to learn more? Complete the form here and we will be in touch.

News Archive

Use case: irrigation management
06 January, 2020

Thermal imagery is an ideal tool for irrigation management as thermography data strongly correlates to the presence of moisture in a field. Having the ability to accurately identify moisture levels in your fields can help you see where your irrigation systems are applying the appropriate amount of water and where they may be applying excessive or insufficient amounts of water. This information can help you spot irrigation failures in your fields early enough to fix the issues before they negatively impact your yield.

Let's take a look at how three separate TerrAvion growers used their thermal imagery to identify irrigation failures in their fields.


Blocked Furrows Thermal

For growers using furrow irrigation systems on their farm, the same principles mentioned above apply. Where water is flowing correctly, thermal imagery will appear as a consistent cool zone. Water-stressed areas that are not receiving the proper amount of water will appear hot. The image to the left shows a furrow irrigated field. The darker colors reflect cold thermal areas where water is flowing correctly, and the lighter colors represent warm thermal areas. The two black arrows are pointing to warm areas where the furrows are blocked and where water is not flowing. Once identified, growers can dig out the clogged furrows, allowing the water to resume its correct flow.

Drip Tape Failure Thermal

Drip tape

For drip tape irrigation systems on high-value crops such as grapes and hops, one thing growers are typically looking for is leaks along their tape. Excessive irrigation in high-value crops can negatively impact fruit quality, which can result in a loss of profits. Drip tape leaks are easily identified in thermal imagery. In the image to the right, the white arrows are pointing to cool thermal zones that have formed due to a leak in the drip tape. TerrAvion's weekly imagery with overnight delivery provides timely information that helps growers catch and address these issues before they have a chance to negatively impact fruit quality.

irrigation blog 2

Pump systems

With any type of irrigation system, the issue can sometimes lie out of sight with a larger pump system that brings water to the smaller nozzles and applicators. In the example to the left, the underground piping that brings the water to this drip tape system sprung a leak underneath part of this vineyard. The grower knew that there was a major leak, but couldn't find the exact location of the issue. After looking at his thermal imagery, he was able to pinpoint the location of the issue. The purple, cool thermal spot reveals the leak. This grower was able to minimize the impact on his vineyard by precisely excavating down to the problem that he had identified instead of digging around further into his vineyard where he believed the source of the problem was located.

These issues all have the potential to negatively impact yield. Making the actual correction to the problem is usually a quick and inexpensive process. The real challenge for growers in addressing these issues is identifying them, and TerrAvion thermal imagery allows growers to do that before they even step foot in their field.

Irrigation management is one of the many ways TerrAvion can help you increase your profits. 

Reach your business goals in 2020 with support of TerrAvion high-resolution subscription imagery! To learn how, provide your information here!

TerrAvion future capabilities: red edge
09 December, 2019

For 2020, TerrAvion will be providing services with new and improved product specifications and operational improvements designed to increase our reliability while delivering more images. While we are focused on exceeding the expectations of our customers with our current product offering for 2020, our R&D department always has an eye on the future. Our team is experimenting and exploring the possibilities of adding new remote sensing technologies to our product offering all the time. The following is some information on a new product that we currently are testing, red edge imagery. 

red edge 2

Red Edge 

Limitations of NDVINormalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE), or “Red Edge” is an index product (image constructed from a combination of two distinct frequencies of light) much like the more familiar Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). While NDVI is one of the most widely used and trusted indexes in agriculture, in certain situations, NDRE imagery is a better-suited tool for analyzing crop health.    

While NDVI imagery has so many great benefits as a crop health index, it does have one limitation that is evident when certain crops reach their peak canopy level. The visible red light that is used for NDVI imagery is mostly absorbed by the top of the plant canopy. This means that when a crop reaches its full canopy, the visible red light may get more strongly absorbed by the canopy, leaving lower levels of the canopy under-represented in an NDVI measurement. This effect generally impacts plants with more layers of leaves, like tree canopies, but in some cases can affect commodity crops like later-stage corn as well. 

What is Red Edge, and how can it help?

red edge blog-2

While NDVI is built from a combination of visible red light and near-infrared (NIR) light, NDRE uses a combination of NIR light and a frequency band found between visible red and NIR light, or the “red edge.” The red edge refers explicitly to the wavelengths between approx. 0.7 and 0.8 µm, the region between the red light, where reflectance from green vegetation is very low, and the NIR light where the reflectance is very high. The substitution of NDVI’s red band with NDRE’s red edge band provides a measurement that is not as strongly absorbed by just the topmost layers of a plant. Studies have shown that the transition between the red absorbance and the NIR reflection (the Red Edge) can indicate variations in both the chlorophyll content and the leaf density. 

In short, NDRE imagery is sometimes capable of indicating very subtle signs of crop health variability in a mature crop faster than NDVI imagery.

Can TerrAvion deliver NDRE imagery?

TerrAvion is already well into the development of our own NDRE product. We are currently testing this product in parts of South America. Specifically, our red edge is taken at 710 nm +/- 10 nm. While our NDVI product is already one of the best value crop monitoring solutions on the market, we are always looking to develop and improve our products.

For more information on our current product specs, including our new Synthetic Color and Pansharpened Thermal imagery, visit our product info page or complete the form here.

TerrAvion accelerates growth with new office in Sonoma, California
21 November, 2019

The new office expansion enables TerrAvion to accelerate growth and increase its focus and support of one of the most important vineyard regions in the world.

TerrAvion High resolution NDVI and thermal image from a vineyard showing how the vigor is affected by lack of water

TerrAvion recently opened a new office in Sonoma to accommodate its rapid growth and strong focus on supporting viticulture. The new office will be TerrAvion’s continued focus on product and service improvements, to optimize them for viticulture, has warranted the expansion into a dedicated office location, located at 19238 Highway 12 in Sonoma, CA. The new office will focus on the wine-producing regions in California. the home base for Raúl E. Peña, Regional Vice President - Western Region & Specialty Crops, and supports the company’s growth strategy for California.


Raúl Peña, Regional Vice President

“The decision to expand our physical presence in California’s wine country is a logical step in TerrAvion’s growth strategy’,” says Lee Smith, CCO. “TerrAvion started its aerial imagery services in this region, and it has always been a stronghold for our business. Over the years, we have modified our services to fit the needs of our viticulture customers seamlessly, and we are excited to underline that commitment with the opening of this new office."

For 2020, TerrAvion will be offering three flight schedules for California. Two of these flight schedules are focused on the coastal wine-producing region, with one exclusive Ultra-Premium Napa Country plan for high-end vineyards, and a third one focused on the wine-growing regions in the Central Valley. In addition, TerrAvion has upgraded its sensor technology to offer an incredible resolution on all its imagery data. The continuous commitment to improvement and advancements is indicative in the new image layers,  the Synthetic Color, and the Pansharpened Thermal with astonishing resolution improvement in the thermal imagery data.

TerrAvion offers for viticulture:

- Dedicated flight schedules vineyards

- The most image data layers to get the most comprehensive and actionable information  

- An ever-growing integrated partner list to provide access to our data in many agricultural platforms

Office information:

TerrAvion Sonoma Office
19238 Highway 12
Sonoma, CA, USA. 95476
Local Office:  707-934-8272
Cell: 510-798-3109

For any questions, you can also send an email to

2020 TerrAvion Flight Schedule Updates
11 November, 2019

For the 2020 growing season, TerrAvion will be offering enhanced aerial imagery subscription services. In addition to serving a new menu of imagery products and our highest resolution imagery to date, TerrAvion will also be rolling out redesigned flight schedules for all regions.

2020 TerrAvion flight schedules

In 2020, throughout the U.S. and Canada, all TerrAvion subscription services will consist of weekly flight attempts on all customer acres. Services will be standardized with weekly cycles across all service regions. Longer flight cycles have been eliminated, with weekly cycles designed to deliver more images for customers, weather permitting. For TerrAvion standard services, service start dates, end dates, and the total number of weeks/flight cycles will depend on region and crop type.  Screenshot_189A premium service, consisting of more frequent flight attempts, will be offered in the Pacific Northwest, Florida, Canada, and in parts of California. 

For 2020, each weekly flight cycle will consist of 3 image capture attempts. TerrAvion pilots will plan to fly each customer’s field until a quality image is captured or until they have exhausted their three flight attempts for the week. This new system will have the makeup flights already build into the flight plans if they are needed.

One-Shots and Historicals

In addition to our subscription services, TerrAvion will also be offering one-shot services and historical imagery processing. One-Shots and Historicals are available when you need data outside our subscription flight schedules.

One-Shot flights are individual image capture attempts that can be performed at any time of the year in areas beyond our regular coverage zones. One-Shot flights are charged per acre imaged.  

TerrAvion pilots capture imagery continuously while they are in the air. All these images are stored in our database and can be called on and processed upon request. We call these types of orders Historicals. If you are someone who is interested in our services but have never been a TerrAvion customer, chances are that we have data available for your acres somewhere in our database.

Advanced sensors

Outside of these core services, TerrAvion is also capable of providing ultra-high-resolution imagery by flying our advanced sensors. This service will be priced on a case-by-case basis. 

TerrAvion’s 2020 flight services are design to be straightforward and easy to understand while delivering our highest reliability numbers to date. Weekly flight schedules in every region during the growing season ensure that you have the data you need at every agronomic event. For more information on any of the services listed above, please complete the form here.

Disaster Relief Flights in Northern California:
28 October, 2019

A message from TerrAvion CEO Robert Morris:

We want to offer our sympathy and support to all who are suffering loss from the ongoing devastating wildfires in Northern California. Our thoughts are with those affected by the fires and all of those working to contain them. We want to contribute to the cause by offering our services to the growers and conservationists of Northern California. 

Once fires are contained, and flight conditions improve, TerrAvion will be providing free imagery to growers whose fields were affected by the fires. We hope our imagery will help speed and support insurance and government relief claims to aid in what is sure to be a painful rebuilding process. 

To receive free imagery of your vineyard or farm, please contact 

Please stay safe and adhere to official directives while the fires burn on.

Thank you.

Robert Morris

Founder, CEO


TerrAvion announces service specifications for 2020
25 October, 2019

Every season, TerrAvion evaluates its operations and makes improvements for the next growing season. 2019 was the wettest growing season since 1880 across much of North America. It was a tough year in agriculture for everyone involved, and Terravion was no exception. As the largest volume provider of aerial imagery to agriculture, TerrAvion got to learn a lot of lessons the hard way about operating in challenging weather and logistical situations. And learn we did: our pilots, technicians, and engineers put in many hours and developed many new solutions to the challenge of delivering imagery reliably at scale under all circumstances. We hope North American agriculture never sees a year like 2019, but the changes and improvements TerrAvion is making mean we will be ready for it in 2020 if need.

"TerrAvion is committed to being the standard imagery provider ag professionals rely upon to see what's happening in their fields," says Robert Morris, Founder and CEO of TerrAvion, "Given that it was the worst weather in a generation and its cascading effect on our logistics, some of our customers didn't get all the images that they wanted, and this is not acceptable to TerrAvion. We learned from 2019 and made changes that will allow us to fulfill our mission to provide the data that makes digital agriculture possible, under all conditions. In 2020, we are putting our unique experience to good use, making the service better than ever. TerrAvion is the most reliable image data source for agriculture now and in the years to come."

Today, TerrAvion is releasing our 2020 standard service specifications. Some key highlights of our 2020 service specification are:

Improving data and uniformity across our footprint:

  • All sensors will be uniform across the United States and Canada and collecting at 9.77 cm mean optical Ground Sample Distance.
  • TerrAvion is adding dynamic exposure compensation and low light Signal-to-Noise Ratio hardware and software improvements.  This will also allow us to capture high-quality data across a wider range of weather conditions.
  • Schedule design is standardized across all regions to weekly attempts on clients' acres regardless of historical weather patterns; that is, long cycles have been eliminated.  This should mean more deliveries for clients when weather allows.

Improving reliability and communication:

  • New service design which will result in more deliveries and more transparency about when to expect the next delivery.
  • Increase in fleet collection capacity and speed.
  • Conducted external audit of operations, created an improvement action plan that is currently being implemented.
  • New aircraft fleet and pilot organization enabling daily tracker status reporting to clients.
  • Improved aircraft allocation, basing, and maintenance program.

TerrAvion offers various flight schedules; with our some of Premium Services specifically designed for vineyards. For more details and to request more information, visit TerrAvion Flight Schedule.

Review your season with aerial imagery
11 October, 2019

TerrAvion customers have described our services as a "visual diary" to their season, and we couldn't agree more. Weekly deliveries of high-resolution crop health, color, thermal, and infrared images provide our customers with detailed information regarding the health and state of their fields. This information is valuable to growers as a tool to help them make more efficient and profitable in-season decisions. It can also provide great value as they plan for next season. TerrAvion also offers various tools and features that can help growers evaluate crop performance, crop health insights, and season summary reports. 

Explaining your yield results through NDVI and thermal imagery

While yield data is the ultimate metric for evaluating how a crop performed throughout a season, it often does not tell the full story. The whole story of crop performance and the performance of individual inputs is vital information for determining a management plan for the following year. In particular, TerrAvion imagery provides details on how various weather conditions and events affected your crop.  nutrient leaching blogAbnormal weather conditions can return input results that might not hold during an average year for weather. TerrAvion thermal imagery can reveal excessive moisture resulting from storms. Whether that be in the form of standing water immediately after rain, or as subsurface moisture and over-saturated soil. Conversely, high-resolution thermal and NDVI imagery can indicate signs of water stress due to drought or insufficient irrigation. 

To determine how weather events impacted your yields, start with your NDVI imagery. Review your NDVI imagery for the entire season. Note how different vigor patterns throughout the season resulted in the crop vigor distribution towards the end of the season. Next, move to your thermal imagery. Look for thermal patterns that developed in your fields during the early/middle parts of the season, especially around the time of heavy rains or drought conditions. See if the vigor you have identified correlates with thermal patterns. The Analytics View feature, available in the TerrAvion OverView web interface, is an excellent tool for image comparisons. Low vigor growth that correlates to cool earlier season thermal imagery often indicates nutrient leaching or soil compaction issues. Low vigor growth that corresponds to warm thermal patterns usually means water stress due to poor soil quality, drought, inadequate irrigation, or other factors. These conditions or events often impact your end yield results, and growers should consider this as they work to build a management plan for the following year. 

Tools and features for end-of-season imagery review

As mentioned above, the Analytics View feature (shown in the image below) is an excellent tool for comparison as you review your season's imagery. Another feature available in OverView, the Summary View feature, helps you visualize the progression and performance of your fields throughout the season. Pest blog 1 alfalfa 2-1The Summary View feature displays the natural color, infrared, standard NDVI, and thermal imagery all in one window, along with the NDVI and thermal histograms. The feature allows you to use your keyboard arrows to quickly flip through a season's worth of imagery, allowing you to visualize the progression of your field throughout the season. Users can then download these summary views as a PDF file. 

The Statistics Digest feature, also available in OverView, offers a statistical view of the NDVI data for your fields. You can analyze the NDVI statistics for a single field throughout a season, or you can compare the NDVI statistics for all of your fields on a given date. Various metrics indicate plant health at the canopy and base level of your crop Download these tables at a CSV file for further analysis outside of that which TerrAvion offers.

Lastly, the TerrAvion PDF generator tool makes it easy to make quick PDF reports with custom notes for your fields. Open the PDF generator, select which image layers you want to include, and record notes on your observations. These reports are convenient for communicating your observations to your growers or other parties involved with the management of your fields. 


For more information on how TerrAvion subscription imagery can help you through the growing season, click here!


TerrAvion + CropTrak
11 October, 2019

TerrAvion and CropTrak are excited to announce a new technical partnership! CropTrak is a geospatially enabled data platform used on over 60 crops in over 58 countries by food, ingredient, and enterprise ag companies to contract, monitor, trace, and report on food. An initial iteration of the TerrAvion + CropTrak integration at a large mutual client is already deployed and in operation. Once optimized and readied for broader deployment, it will be part of the public offering. 


CropTrak is designed to enable its customers to create a fully customizable data platform to handle all aspects of supply chain data management, including monitoring, traceability, sustainability, and compliance reporting. CropTrak is designed to allow customers to take complete control in implementing their workflows without having to do any coding. But CropTrak also offers a practical first-year licensing agreement that provides users with hands-on help to achieve success. What makes CropTrak unique as TerrAvion's partner is its flexibility and focus for large multi-national operations and enterprise ag companies. 

For CropTrak customers, TerrAvion allows them to centralize the data they are collecting around high-resolution aerial imagery. TerrAvion imagery replaces the standard background imagery provided by CropTrak with high-resolution, multi-spectral imagery. The integration allows TerrAvion customers to gain significant crop health and insights from right in the CropTrak platform. All while providing the ability to increase efficiency and improve every part of your operations. TerrAvion imagery is valuable data by itself, but when layered inside CropTrak with other operational data, TerrAvion and CropTrak customers get even more benefits. 

This new partnership offers higher value and opportunity to both TerrAvion and CropTrak customers. If your operation requires better field-level situational awareness, greater supply-chain visibility, or a flexible data management platform. Complete the form below to learn more about this exciting new partnership and how TerrAvion + CropTrak can help transform your organization!

Interested to learn more? Click here!

Timing your harvest with TerrAvion high-resolution image data
27 September, 2019

Uneven vineyard vigor potentially results in mixed grape quality at harvest. With TerrAvion, you can use our NDVI imagery to create harvest zones, enabling differential harvesting to avoid mixing high and low-quality grapes, allowing you to achieve a higher quality yield. 

In the image below, you see a vineyard with blocks that are showing different vigor levels. In this example, the large block on the east side of the vineyard is ready for harvest, as is the small block in the middle. The block in the northwest corner is not yet ready for harvest. The large block in the southwest corner of the vineyard shows that about a third of the block is ready for harvest, while the rest is not.

Harvest Zones

You can use the polygon tool to create a “harvest zone” in a block that is not uniformly ready for harvest. Using this tool, you can select an area that you want to identify as a harvest zone, as seen in the image below. After you draw your shape, you will be able to see the size of your selected area in acres. You will also have the option to download the associated GEOJSON or SHP file, which you can integrate with other precision farming programs you may use. 

TerrAvion Mobile - link your data to your vineyard 

After identifying harvest zones in your vineyard, you can access your imagery on the free TerrAvion mobile app, which allows you to view your imagery on-the-go, even while offline. While walking your vineyard, the GPS locator in the app will show you exactly where you are on the ground in relation to your imagery. 

This lets you place yourself in the exact row that you've identified as the split between a harvest zone and a zone not ready for harvest, allowing you to be precise picking the grape to confirm their ripeness. The polygons also make it easy to directing harvesting teams only to the zones you've identified as harvest-ready. 

Ready to learn whether TerrAvion aerial imagery can help your vineyard optimize its process and end product? Complete the form here!

Centralize your operations with TerrAvion
04 September, 2019

Managing a farm often involves multiple entities that are responsible for, either individually or collectively, various parts of farm operations. Many growers have farm hands that help manage their farm and additionally also work with agronomists, crop consultants, retailers, and other agricultural professionals. Keeping everyone on the same page presents a challenge. TerrAvion’s web and mobile platforms provide growers a place to centralize their communications, and our high-resolution imagery supplies a backdrop for all parties to reference throughout the season.


Labeling tool: OverView


The TerrAvion labeling tool, available in the OverView web interface, is designed for making field notes and communicating them with all parties involved in the management of a field. While reviewing imagery, users can utilize the polygon tool to draw zones in their fields that they find of interest. Once an area is selected, it is logged as a “label” in the labeling OverView labeling tab. When a label is created, all parties who have access to the field’s imagery will be notified of the new label. Users can enter the OverView labeling section and start a conversation on labeled items. All comments are logged in the comments section with a date stamp. All users will again be notified when additional comments are made. A label will remain open and active throughout the season until it is either archived or deleted. These features allow all parties to be clear on exactly what and where the issue is. Users can stay up to date on the latest developments reported by other team members and track the item until it is resolved. Click here to see how to make labels in OverView.



Geo-tagged pins: Mobile app

labeling 2In the TerrAvion mobile app, the drop-a-pin feature allows users to make in-field, geo-tagged notes, provides great utility as a communication tool on the farm. Users can make scouting notes attached to a precise location in their field and then attach photos to their notes. When a mobile note is made, a pin will be visible in both the mobile app and OverView web interface. All users who have access to the imagery of that field will see the pin in their own TerrAvion accounts. This feature allows a grower or agronomist to access scouting notes remotely as soon as they are created. Click here for more information on how to use 'drop-a-pin' in the TerrAvion mobile app.


PDF reports

43666907_1809148229184320_550661081324847104_oTerrAvion users can make quick and easy PDF reports in their OverView accounts that can be distributed digitally or in print. Users can create a PDF report for a single field with the option to include only the map layers that they feel apply to a particular situation. They can also make summary PDF reports that contain a full season's worth of imagery. PDF reports are a great tool for meetings and for bringing all team members together to focus on the issue at hand. Click here for more information on how to create PDF reports from your TerrAvion imagery.


To learn more about how TerrAvion can help you centralize communications on your farm, please complete the form here and we will be in touch.

Sustainable viticulture
19 August, 2019

Growers around the world work hard to provide for society's food and textile needs, and they require many resources to do so. The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society's present needs without compromising future generations ability to do the same. More efficient use of natural resources and inputs harmful to the environment can limit the strain producers put on the environment. Sustainable agronomy programs can deliver higher yields than the more wasteful programs through more intelligent input distribution and resource allocation. Aerial imagery enables growers to farm more sustainably by helping them minimize water use, promote soil health, and lower pollution levels on their farms. 


Water management

Water is a principal resource for all producers, and water scarcity is one of the most immediate threats facing growers today. Growers require a significant amount of water to produce and meet the world's food and textile needs. Faulty irrigation and drainage systems can result in inefficient use of water and soil degradation. Outdated irrigation systems can apply more water than is necessary for a crop to reach its full yield potential, resulting in wasteful water runoff. High-resolution thermal imagery, which correlates to moisture levels in fields, can help growers see were their irrigation systems are over-applying water. This information allows them to make warranted adjustments to save water. High-resolution NDVI imagery can be used to evaluate irrigation trials and help growers determine optimal irrigation rates throughout their blocks. Information on the varying water requirements throughout a vineyard facilitates variable rate irrigation programs for modern irrigation systems. 

Water sustainability isn't only about growers applying less water; sometimes it's about making the most of the water that they are using. Thermal imagery can help growers identify clogged nozzles in their irrigation systems that can leave vines water-stressed. Water-stressed plants will not grow to their full yield potential, making waste of the seed, fertilizer, and other inputs used to produce the grapes. The image above shows a block that has hot (red) and cold (blue) spots caused by an uneven water distribution on the field affecting the growth of the grapes. 

Excessive moisture can also have a significant impact on another fundamental part of sustainable agriculture; soil health. 


Soil health

Another critical component of soil health is the use of cover crops, compost, and tillage practices. NDVI imagery is an ideal tool for evaluating the effectiveness of these practices. Growers can set up trials and use NDVI imagery to see vigor variations that are not visible on the field level. This information can help viticulturist develop the best possible soil management plan. Healthy soil is a critical component of sustainable agriculture. Soil needs to be nurtured and maintained to ensure its long-term productivity. Over-saturated soil caused by excessive irrigation and heavy rains can lead to soil compaction and nutrient leaching, both of which degrade soil quality. Overhead irrigation systems and heavy rains cause soil crusting, a type of soil compaction. Soil compaction leads to poor root health and prevents water from infiltrating deep into the soil. Compacted soil results in less efficient crop water use, and often, additional irrigation applications are needed to aid the growth of the crop. Excessive water can also wash out essential nutrients from the soil, which requires multiple inputs to replenish it. High-resolution thermal imagery can help growers identify over-saturated soil in their blocks where they need to install drainage systems or amend inefficient systems.


Ideal input rates

Similar to using NDVI imagery to identify the best soil management practices, it can also be used to determine the most productive input stack. Once a grower has identified the best inputs and rates for their field, they can use NDVI imagery to define zones in their field that vary in yield potential. 

Viticulturist can then apply more inputs to the areas that will respond to them, and less to poor performing areas where they will be wasted. Precision agriculture practices such as variable-rate irrigation and applications ensure the most efficient use of resources, allowing growers to produce more without waste. Growers can set up nutrients and other input trails and use NDVI imagery to determine the best performing product under various growing conditions. 

The image on the left shows a block that has been divided into two halves. The left half got variable-rate nutrients applied based on the data of the NDVI layer provided while the right half did not get any extra nutrient input. A short time later, the effects of the applied nutrients are clearly visible in the NDVI data (image on the right), showing even growth and yield potential.


Sustainable agriculture not only benefits the environment but growers as well. More efficient management practices allow growers to do more with less. For more information on how aerial imagery improves efficiency and sustainability in vineyards, reach out to Raúl Peña @ 510 798 3109 or


Aerial imagery for agriculture: learning the basics
05 August, 2019

Aerial imagery is a powerful tool that can transform any modern agronomy program into a more profitable system. However, many growers are not familiar enough with what imagery has to offer to consider it as part of an agronomy solution. Let's break down the basics of aerial imagery for agriculture.


Image resolution

satellite resolution comparison

To start, let's talk about an important component of all imagery data; resolution. Image resolution is the detail an image holds. Resolution refers to the number of pixels in an image, and a pixel is the smallest element of a digital image. Each image is made up of many tiny pixels. Higher resolution means smaller pixels, and more of them, resulting in more image detail. The amount of resolution you need depends on what you're trying to do. If you are using an aerial image to map out driving directions, a low-resolution satellite image will do the trick. If you are using imagery for agricultural purposes, to monitor your crops and guide management decisions, a high-resolution image is required. For instance, a high-resolution image may clearly reveal signs of crop stress that are not observed in lower resolution imagery. Any modern agronomy program is only as good as the quality of data that powers it, and high-resolution imagery is an essential piece of data for any successful agronomy program.


Various image layers


Natural Color

When you hear the term aerial imagery, you are probably thinking of what you would see if you were flying in a plane, which is a natural color or RGB (Red Green Blue) image. This is the type of image that your regular camera captures and what you see with your own eyes. Natural color imagery is not the most important layer for making management decisions, but it still provides excellent value for a variety of use cases. In particular, natural color imagery is an excellent tool to identify storm damage and soil issues. Other yield-robbing problems can also be identified in natural color images, but natural color imagery is mostly used as a contextual reference layer to support some of the next image types we will discuss.

Infrared or Color InfraRed (CIR)

Infrared imagery has been used for decades in agriculture as a plant health indicator. Infrared data measures the red light reflection of a plant which corresponds to plant biomass. Plants with dense biomass will reflect more light and appear more red in an infrared image. Infrared imagery is still a valuable tool for indicating plant health, but nowadays, another type of data as the most widely used image type for assessing crop health.

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index or NDVI

NDVI is the crop health image that growers use to identify crop stress. NDVI imagery is a vegetation index that measures plant biomass along with photosynthetic activity or the presence of chlorophyll. NDVI is a combination of infrared data and the red (R) band of color in RGB imagery, which has shown to correlate to photosynthetic activity or chlorophyll levels. Each NDVI pixel gets assigned a value from 0 to 1, with 0 representing dirt with no vegetation growth and 1 representing vegetation of the highest possible vigor. These pixels are then colorized, creating a crop health image such as the green image shown above. High-resolution NDVI imagery can reveal stress in plants that is not evident even when you are on the ground level, looking directly at the plant. Because of this, NDVI imagery has great value in identifying yield-robbing issues well before they become evident to the naked eye.


Thermal imagery is data that illustrates thermography information for a field and is only available through crewed aircraft or drones, not from satellites. Because thermal imagery is being captured from the sky, a thermal image is not an exact measurement of ground temperature. It will, however, tell you ground temperature within a few degrees, but more importantly, it will reveal any slight variation in temperature in a field, which is very valuable information when it comes to managing irrigation, drainage, and any other moisture-related issues. Thermal imagery can also add context to issues revealed in the other image layer such as NDVI, natural color, or infrared. Thermal data often has a lower resolution than the other three image types.


New image layers

The above-mentioned image layers are the core four imagery products available to growers today through TerrAvion. TerrAvion provides all of these layers for every subscription at one flat rate. For 2019, TerrAvion has added another two products to our core product line; the Pansharpened Thermal image, and the Synthetic Color image. The TerrAvion pansharpened data layer is a combination of our current thermal image and the higher-resolution infrared data. This combined product allows you to see field characteristics such as crop rows or other plant signatures that are clearly visible in infrared imagery but are not visible in our standard thermal product. Similarly, the TerrAvion Synthetic Color imagery is a combination of our natural color product and infrared product, offering better definition and detail in images where factors such as poor lighting can result in natural color imagery that lacks contrast and appears dull in color.


Service types: subscription vs. one-shots vs. historical



Aerial imagery services can generally be separated into two categories; a single image or one-shot services, or subscription services. A one-shot service is a service where image data is captured on one day. If a grower believes they are only going to use imagery for one specific case and don't require multiple images, one-shots can be an option. One-shot services are common with drone imagery providers because drone imagery is expensive, and achieving ROI with drone subscription services is not easily achieved due to the higher cost.


Subscription service

Subscription services provide multiple images throughout a growing season. The number of image deliveries for subscription services varies, as do the flight schedules. Some providers offer a few flights with a more flexible schedule, while others, such as TerrAvion, offer various subscription services that adhere to a fixed flight schedule. Following a set flight schedule for subscription services allows imagery providers to streamline their operations, operate at a higher efficiency, and offer lower prices. Satellite providers offer subscription services because their satellites are always capturing imagery, so there isn't much difference in overhead cost for providing an image on one specific date compared to many images over time. Satellite image deliveries are offered on a very fixed schedule as they only get one chance to capture an image as they rotate the earth. This can lead to problems when weather, clouds, and other environmental factors lead to poor image capture conditions. TerrAvion offers various subscription offerings based on the varying needs per region and crop type. Unlike satellites, however, TerrAvion pilots will work around the weather. TerrAvion pilots typically operate within one to two-week flight cycles. While we try to deliver imagery at consistent intervals, it leaves some room to work around the weather.


Historical imagery

TerrAvion also offers a third imagery service: historical imagery. When TerrAvion planes are flying, they are always actively capturing imagery. The unprocessed imagery gets stored in our database and we can process it upon request. If your vineyard is near one of our other customers, chances are we have historical imagery of your blocks and can provide it to you. Historical imagery is valuable information when it comes to building management plans for your blocks as it can tell you how your blocks have performed in previous seasons in far greater detail than yield or soil data. Also in case of adverse weather events, historical data can provide information for insurance purposes.

Imagery can help improve every aspect of vineyard operations throughout an entire season, but only if the imagery is provided during key agronomic events, for roughly the same cost as a single drone flight. TerrAvion has frequent imagery subscriptions that provide you with the data you need exactly when you need it. Click here to learn more about TerrAvion subscription offerings.


Imagery turnover time

Imagery turnover time, the time between image capture until it is delivered to the end-user is a critical component of agricultural imagery services. From the time an image is captured, conditions in that field change, and as they do, the imagery loses its value over time. That's because much of the value of aerial imagery is about indicating how your field is performing at a given time. If you are making management decisions based on imagery, you want to make those decisions based on what's happening in your field right now, not what was happening last month. Timing is crucial for specific imagery applications such as variable rate applications and making harvest timing decisions. TerrAvion has the fastest imagery turnover time in the industry, delivered next day at an average turnover time of 11.2 hours.


Imagery providers

Imagery for agriculture is generally going to be captured from an aerial perspective. There are three primary ways that aerial imagery is captured; by satellite, crewed aircraft, or drones.

Satellite imagery is supplied by various satellites orbiting the earth. Satellite imagery is usually less expensive than imagery captured by drones or crewed aircraft because there is a much lower operational cost. Crewed aircraft and drones require pilots and operators; satellites do not. Satellites offer frequent image deliveries as they are constantly rotating the earth and capturing imagery, but because they are so far away from the earth's surface, the imagery has low-resolution. Satellite image resolution ranges from 50 meters to 1 meter per pixel. In addition, satellite providers do not offer thermal imagery, a key piece of data for farm management.

Drones are widely used in agriculture and offer the highest resolution imagery out of the three types of providers. Drones are also the most expensive imagery option, significantly more expensive than satellite or crewed aircraft imagery. It takes a drone operator all day to fly the acres that a plane can topa0300-06bcover in less than a minute. After imagery is captured, it doesn't just get sent to the end-user; it needs to be processed. Add in these processing costs and the total cost for drone imagery comes in much higher for a single image, making it unrealistic as a weekly or even monthly vineyard monitoring tool.

Crewed aircraft offers the high-resolution benefits of drones at a cost more comparable to satellite offerings. The cost of a single drone flight can get you aerial image subscription from TerrAvion at 10-17 cm per pixel. For agriculture, crewed aircraft imagery offers the best deal; high-resolution imagery delivered weekly with the quick turnover time. For more information on how to choose a remote sensing provider, click here.


How do I view my imagery?

Most imagery providers will offer a web interface, a mobile interface, or both, where you can view and manage your imagery. Web apps often offer more features to help you manage and act on your imagery, while mobile apps let you take your data on the go while you are scouting your fields. In addition, imagery is available in many farm management platforms and scouting apps, such as those offered by John Deere and Climate. Other programs, while possibly not directly integrated, accept manual imagery imports. TerrAvion offers free highly functional mobile and desktop apps, as well as a long list of integrated partners whose platforms can display our imagery. Many of our integrated partners, like FluroSense and Ranch Systems, offer additional features that work flawlessly with TerrAvion data. For more information on the TerrAvion apps, click here. For a list of TerrAvion integrated partners, click here. 


What can imagery do for me?

Now that you are a little more familiar with the different types of imagery offerings out there, let's talk about situations how imagery can help you make more money. Imagery can help you be more efficient in every part of your operations.

  • - Imagery data, along with yield and soil data, is extremely valuable information when it comes to building planting plans for your vineyards.
  • Imagery helps you identify and address soil moisture, compaction issues, and weed issues.
  • - After emergence, monitor your imagery for crop stress related to soil, fertility, pest, disease, or other yield-robbing issues.
  • - Real-time aerial imagery is the best indication of how a crop is performing at any given time. Use this information to make input decisions and make NDVI and thermal management zone maps to guide any in-season applications. The timely and detailed imagery data ensure inputs are going to the exact places where they are going to be most effective.

- One of the simplest ways growers can use imagery is to guide their scouting efforts. Traditional random scouting is inefficient and relies on a certain amount of luck to reveal yield-robbing issues. Monitor your most recent image deliveries to identify areas of stress and direct your scouting efforts to those areas. This guarantees that all of the problem areas in your field that require your attention are being seen while not wasting time scouting the healthy areas of your field that don't require your attention by in-field scouting.

- NDVI imagery has shown to correlate to crop moisture levels during harvest season. Use imagery to help you harvest your ripest fruits first while allowing you less ripe fruits more time to ripen.

- Subscription imagery provides growers with a visual diary of how your field performed throughout the season and how certain factors contributed to that performance. Use this information to assess input performance and to build a profitable management plan for the following year.


For more information on how to implement an imagery program on your vineyard, click here.

How to Use Aerial Image Layers for Pest Management
21 July, 2019

Use case: pest management

Pest management is complex. Growers need to determine the type of pest they are dealing with, the extent of the infestation, other factors that may have contributed to the pest issue, what pesticides to use to fight the outbreak and how to apply them, etc. Before growers react to a pest situation in their fields, they first need to identify that they have a pest infestation. The timeliness of pest detections is crucial. If you catch the pest issue early, any treatment you make will have a better chance of success as the infestations haven't been given the time to develop and spread. If the issue goes undetected, an infestation can ruin an entire field's harvest. Crop monitoring and in-field scouting are critical steps for pest management that allows growers to identify and quantify pest pressure. Information gathered can be used to determine if pest control actions are warranted, and if they are, that information can help inform and guide a successful pest management plan. High-resolution aerial imagery offers a crop monitoring solution capable of detecting crop stress resulting from pest pressure.


Identifying pest issues

One of the most essential yet challenging aspects of pest management is identifying the problem. Growers have historically relied heavily on scouting and prior knowledge of field conditions and pest history to identify issues. However, unless you are scouting every foot of your field, it is easy for small, isolated pest issues to go undetected. These small pest issues can quickly become full-blown infestations if left undetected and unremedied. Local weather data can indicate conditions susceptible to pest pressure. Having a good understanding of the pest history in their fields can help growers focus in on areas vulnerable to pest pressure. However, relying on these methods alone to detect pest infestations relies on a certain amount of luck in turning up issues.

Pest blog 1 alfalfa-1

How to use aerial image layers for pest management

High-resolution aerial imagery can reveal subtle signs of crop stress that are caused by pest pressure. NDVI, CIR, and thermal imagery, in particular, can reveal crop stress that is not readily observed in color imagery or even on the field level.


NDVI imagery for pest management

NDVI imagery, a crop health index that measures plant biomass and chlorophyll levels, is engineered to detect crop stress. When crops are suffering from pest pressure, they show signs of stress, stress that NDVI imagery detects. While NDVI imagery is not a magic tool that will give you a pest-specific diagnosis, it is an excellent tool for identifying stressed areas that are potentially suffering from pest pressure and warrant an in-field inspection. If an in-field inspection does reveal a pest infestation, NDVI imagery can also be used to quantify the extent of the outbreak and highlight all plants that share the similar NDVI signatures as the plants suffering from pest pressure. The same imagery can then be used to guide variable rate pesticide treatments that target the most severely affected areas for higher rates while prescribing lower reates to areas with a more sparse pest presence. Services that offer the stress-detection capabilities of high-resolution NDVI imagery along with frequent and timely deliveries of an image subscription plan provide an unmatched solution for identifying and managing pest infestations.
Pest blog 1 alfalfa 2

The image above shows an alfalfa field that is suffering from a bad aphid infestation. The NDVI image of the field reflects the pest pressure as low vigor. According to this NDVI imagery, the aphid infestation seems to have originated and emanated from the northern part of the field.


Thermal imagery for pest management

Plants that are suffering from pest pressure react in the same way as humans do when we get sick; they develop a sort of fever. When plants are suffering from pest pressure, they become less efficient in their ability to transpire, causing the plant's temperature to rise. While thermal imagery is not a perfect pest detection solution, it has been proven very capable of exposing early signs of pest pressure.

In the image above, notice how the thermal image correlates to the NDVI image from the aphid infestation example discussed above. The area suffering from pest pressure exhibits hot thermal characteristics (orange/yellow color). 

Pest blog 1 hops-1

Infrared imagery for pest management

Infrared imagery correlates to plant biomass and has been used in the agriculture industry for decades to monitor crop health. While NDVI imagery provides information on plant biomass as well (in addition to chlorophyll levels), stand-alone infrared imagery can provide similar crop health insights from a slightly different perspective. Certain low vigor patterns will appear in earlier and greater detail in infrared imagery than it does in either thermal or NDVI imagery.

The image to the right shows a hops field that is suffering from an aphid infestation. Notice how the aphid infestation in the infrared image on the right (darker areas) is more evident than it is in the NDVI image on the right.

High-resolution imagery subscription services provide an unmatched affordable crop monitoring solution for pest management. Various image layers each provide different indicators that can help growers detect pest pressure in a timely manner, increasing their chances of success for any remedial action they decide to take. 


For more information on high-resolution aerial imagery as a pest management solution, call or text Raúl Peña at 510 798 3109 or send him an email at

TerrAvion images use case: input performance evaluation
05 July, 2019

TerrAvion NDVI imagery, a crop health index image, will tell you how healthy or stressed your crop is based on plant vigor and chlorophyll levels. This information, collected at key points throughout the season, can be used to assess how vineyards perform over time, and how various inputs and factors are contributing to that performance. Using imagery to supplement yield data can tell you the story of how individual inputs performed throughout a season.

NDVI map of a vineyard

What can imagery data tell me that yield maps cannot?

When you think of evaluating vineyard performance, you probably think about the result: the yield data. Yes, yield results are generally what matters most on any vineyard, but when it comes to evaluating input performances, yield data doesn't tell the whole story. Information about how a crop performed throughout the entire season, through various growing conditions, and through events that altered growing conditions, can tell you a lot about those grapes and all the inputs used to produce it. Imagery provides you with a visual diary of a crop throughout an entire season. You can see which blocks or plots reacted more favorable to drought, storms, pest, or disease pressure, etc. Subscription imagery can be used to verify or disprove presumptions you've made based on your yield results to avoid making significant decisions based on false premises. High-resolution NDVI imagery provides the detail necessary to assess the performance of small-scale test plots, information that might not be as readily observed in yield data. If yield data shows you the results for your vineyard, imagery tells you the story of what happened along the way. 

How do TerrAvion users utilize imagery to evaluate product performance?

While TerrAvion color and infrared imagery are valuable tools for monitoring crop health, TerrAvion NDVI imagery, at a resolution of 17 cm/pixel, is one of the best-suited imagery products on the market for monitoring and evaluating crop performance. But how do TerrAvion customers use imagery to assess product performance? In the TerrAvion OverView web app, there is a tool that allows users to draw zones in their imagery. Selecting a zone will provide the user with information about the selected area. If a shape is drawn around a test plot, block, or any other area, the feature will produce an NDVI histogram and average NDVI value for the NDVI data in that zone. This information can be compared to information from other zones to determine which area is performing best at the time the imagery was captured. Users need to consider factors such as growing conditions and other variables, in addition to all other available information and farm data to see the full story of how a crop and individual inputs performed throughout the season, and why.

The example above shows two nitrogen test plots. The plot that received more nitrogen has a lower average NDVI, which could indicate that a lower application rate of nitrogen for this crop may return better results than a higher rate application.

Making the right decisions

Making decisions on what inputs to use on your vineyard can have significant financial implications. Understanding how a product performed throughout a season, through various conditions and events, can be the information you need to support profitable input decisions and to avoid detrimental ones. For more information on how to use the TerrAvion polygon tool to compare NDVI zones, click here.

Are you ready to see if imagery can help your vineyard become more profitable, call or text Raúl Peña at 510 798 3109 or email him at

TerrAvion Maps OverView Update: Analytics View
21 June, 2019

TerrAvion continuously works to improve our data interface on both our online platform and the mobile app. One of the new features this year in OverView, our online platform, is the Analytics View, a comparison tool that allows you to compare two different images of a single block. The Analytics View feature helps you see changes in your block from week to week and compare different image types to see how they correlate to each other. Analyzing your imagery in this way can help you gain insight into what is happening in your vineyard and why.

TerrAvion customers can access the Analytics View tool from the 'more' menu at the bottom of their OverView screen. Once opened, users can select two separate images to compare either from different dates or different image layers from the same date. Comparing imagery captured on different dates helps you see how your block has changed in that time. Comparing different map layers helps you understand how one map layer correlates to another. Viewing your imagery in this way gives you a different perspective of your blocks and can help you make connections between the information that each image is providing. For instance, compare your NDVI imagery to your thermal imagery to see how moisture might be contributing to crop vigor in your blocks.


Users can choose from two ways to view their comparison; a side by side view or a split view (see image above). The side by side view simply puts your two images of choice right next to each other. When you pan around one image, the other side will mirror your actions. The split view displays your blocks as one image. Control which layer is displayed by dragging a sliding bar across the screen. 

For more information on how to use the Analytics View feature step-by-step, click here. 

Interested to learn more about how TerrAvion high-resolution imagery can help manage your vineyard? Call or text Raúl Peña at 510 798 3109 or email him at

TerrAvion + FluroSense: Data and Analytics for Vineyard Management
10 June, 2019

The TerrAvion + FluroSat partnership offers viticulturists and vineyard managers a cutting-edge analytics solution to pair with their high-resolution TerrAvion imagery. TerrAvion provides some of the highest-quality aerial imagery for agriculture on the market. While TerrAvion provides ready to use, high-quality imagery data as a finished product, made available in our free apps, each TerrAvion image contains data that can be further processed and analyzed to gain telling crop health insights. FluroSat’s crop analytics platform, FluroSense, uses TerrAvion’s high-resolution imagery to produce crop health insights on an individual plant level.

Optimized for permanent crops

Individual tree level analytics makes the FluroSense platform optimized for permanent, high-value crop management. Generally, permanent crops are of higher value and require more attention than commodity crops. For this reason, being able to zoom into the individual plant is needed to create value and insights for high-value, permanent crops, and to be able to do so you need high-resolution imagery and an analytics program such as FluroSense.

One issue with analyzing crop health imagery data on an individual plant level is differentiating the crop from weeds, cover crop, or soil data. FluroSense “denoises” TerrAvion imagery so that growers can make a distinction between signals from their trees or vines and soil or cover crop information. FluroSense algorithms detect individual trees in TerAvion imagery and evaluate biomass and chlorophyll levels on a per-tree basis. The platform provides tree performance analysis that shows the detail of how the tree has performed over time. These analyses can be done on a per-tree level or on an entire block. This information makes it easy for growers to determine the best management plan for their crop, enabling them to maximize the full yield potential for each individual tree. Furthermore, poorly performing trees can be automatically located and the locations can be immediately used (in app or exported) for further scouting.

Nutrient insights

FluroSense uses TerrAvion's diverse spectral bands to generate indices like Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI) and Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE) maps for fields. These two indexes correlate to nitrogen levels in a plant and provide more comprehensive nutrient insights than are available through NDVI alone. This information provided on a per-tree basis can help growers unlock the full yield potential of their crop. These cutting edge nutrient analytics provided on an individual plant basis makes FluroSense an excellent analytics solution for permanent crop growers looking to increase their profits.

See how it works

The image above shows a vineyard with various selected blocks and a specific vine selected. The analytics would work the same for other permanent crops. The graphs on the right side of the image show the various indexes, CCCI, NDVI, or DNRE, either as an average per selected block (thick line) or per selected vine (thin line) over time. These graphs are particularly useful to compare optimal growth and plant performance with the blocks/vines where the growth might be retarded.

The difference between the indexes will give a clear indication of the nature of the stress and the opportunity to manage it. 


The change in plant performance is first indicated in CCCI (chlorophyll index), and at this stage, it is still amendable. When the stress significantly changes plant growth pattern, this becomes visible in biomass index, such as NDVI, which indicates that the issue was not detected at the optimal treatment time.

Interested to learn more? Call or text Raul Pena @ 510 798-3109 or email him at

Want to read more? Click here!

TerrAvion + FluroSat Integration
28 May, 2019

The best of two comprehensive and scalable platforms work together to offer a cost-efficient, best-valued agronomic solution that can provide timely stress detection and optimization of plant nutrition management for farmers, advisors, and retailers.

Crop stress on field with the help of aerial imageThe partnership sees the integration of TerrAvion’s market-leading high-resolution aerial imagery capability into FluroSat’s workflow-integrated agronomics analytics engine, FluroSense. This gives users the most comprehensive, highly-integrated, and contextualized data and information that they can use to understand and manage nutrients for their crops as well as automating stress detection.

With a focus on delivering the most scalable, context-infused data and information to growers, a better-together partnership approach that allows FluroSat and TerrAvion to put our expertise together is more obvious than before as we aim to help growers with timely, localized and integrated data and information to support operational and management decision-making.


Crop stress on field with the help of aerial image

Uniquely different to platforms where growers have to switch in-between dashboards to look at data and imagery for decision-making, this partnership means growers can use one unified platform to drive their agronomic operations.

Growers can use TerrAvion’s high-resolution imagery data through FluroSense and derive actionable information through its integrated decision-support workflow that combines the different layers of contextualized agronomic data (farm records, remotely sensed data, weather information, and machinery data layers) and putting it through integrated scientific crop models to automatically assess plant health, detect crop stress and direct input (fertilizer, water, chemical) applications.


“We hear the market needs and have learned from users that frequently updated analysis of their fields gives them the insights they need to intervene exactly when and where it is needed,” said Dr. Anastasia Volkova, Founder & CEO, FluroSat. “With TerrAvion’s regular in-season capture across the geographies, we are able to deliver data-driven insights to more growers and advisors using FluroSense’s integrated and contextualized data put through rigorous scientific modeling.”


“Farmers and agronomists need accurate and timely data and analytics that they can trust to make the right decisions during the growing season that affect their bottom line. The FluroSense platform is an excellent way to visualize crop and water stress and create class-leading insights for growers all over the world,”  says Robert Morris, Founder, CEO of TerrAvion. “Their validated scientific analytics together with our high-resolution imagery delivers excellent actionable data that will provide our customers with insightful information that will make a difference for them right away.”


Through FluroSat-TerrAvion’s better-together approach, growers can:

- Derive value even from historical aerial imagery from TerrAvion through the use of FluroSense’s scientific modeling. The historical imagery data can be used to tailor the crop stress identification models to help get predictions and adjust nutrient recommendations accordingly.

- Increase productivity by using the integrated and streamlined workflow in FluroSense from imagery capture to scouting, sampling, and prescription – all on one single platform in just a few clicks.

- Receive fully contextualized data alongside the weather data, machinery data, growers’ own farm records, and agronomic observations for holistic management and production decision-making.


With TerrAvion’s market-leading aerial imagery and FluroSense’s best-in-class scientific crop models such as CRISO NutriLOGIC and APSIM as well as proprietary algorithms layered with machine learning models, growers can be ensured of scalability and unique analysis on every field and sub-field management zone.

Interested to learn more, reach out to Raul Peña by email: phone (call or text): 510 798 3109

New: TerrAvion mobile app - OverView sync
17 May, 2019

The latest TerrAvion mobile app can now sync with the TerrAvion OverView web interface! Drop pins and make geotagged notes and photos in the mobile app while your scouting your blocks, and then open them later in your OverView account, where you have access to more tools and features. 

New feature for the mobile app

A new feature in the TerrAvion mobile app allows you to drop a pin at your exact GPS point. When you are using your finger to drop a pin on your mobile device, it can be hard to drop it in the exact location where you are standing. The new GPS feature solves that problem allowing you to be precise with your scouting notes.

As with every TerrAvion mobile app update, be sure to download the most recent update from the app store or google play store. For more information on all new mobile app features, watch the video below.

To read more about our mobile app for both Andoid and Apple devices and to download them: click here.

Choosing a remote sensing provider
29 April, 2019

Aerial imagery has become a fundamental part of successful modern agronomy programs, but with so many options out there, how do you know which one to choose? There are a few different types of aerial imagery - satellite, drone, and aerial (crewed aircraft) - and multiple providers of each type. Understanding the pros and cons of the different kinds of imagery and providers makes it easy to determine the best value imagery service for your needs.


Satellite Images

Satellite data is the cheapest imagery option on the market, but what are you getting for that money? Frankly, not much. Satellites provide low-resolution imagery, ranging from 10 to 1-meter resolution, that provides very little value for agronomy. Modern agronomy programs help growers increase their profits by being extremely precise on where they apply inputs and at what rates. To be successful at this, growers rely heavily on farm data, including imagery data. When you are relying on imagery data to help you make crucial management decisions, detail is paramount, and even the highest resolution satellite imagery doesn’t provide enough detail to get the job done. The success of any precision agronomy program depends heavily on the quality of data you are using, and satellite imagery is low-quality data. While satellites do deliver imagery at a high frequency, they can’t work around clouds and other weather conditions, resulting in data that is often blemished with clouds and shadows.


Drone Images

Drones do provide high-resolution imagery, but at what cost? A high cost, at a price that is not viable as a crop monitoring solution for agriculture. It takes a drone operator all day to fly the acres that a plane can cover in less than a minute. Add in processing costs and the total cost for drone imagery comes in around $5/acre for a single flight, a high price to pay for a single image. Resolution is not the only key factor in assessing the value of various imagery solutions for agriculture. The frequency of image deliveries also plays a big part. For imagery to be valuable for vineyard managers, it needs to be provided at key points throughout the season, and a single drone flight doesn't offer that.


Aerial/crewed aircraft imagery

Aerial imagery captured by crewed aircraft offers the low-cost benefits of satellite imagery and the high-resolution detail of drones. Aerial imagery providers like TerrAvion can provide growers with weekly image delivers at a relatively low cost. Used effectively, high-resolution data, delivered at a high frequency, can help growers improve their efficiency in every aspect of their operations. 


As you compare prices of high-resolution imagery providers, be aware of precisely what you are comparing. For instance, $10 per acre sounds better than $30 per acre, but what are you getting for those prices?  One TerrAvion competitor offers a low $ per acre cost, but that for that price you one flight with only select imagery products. A seemingly higher priced TerrAvion subscription will get you 28 flights per season. Be sure to calculate the cost in $/acre/flight,  and not only look at the $/acre expense.


Also, most imagery providers will quote you a price for their baseline product and then up-charge you for add on features and image layers. With TerrAvion, you get all of our imagery products, including natural color, synthetic color, infrared, thermal and NDVI imagery, in addition to free access to our desktop and mobile apps and the freedom of unlimited sharing of your data.  And we have an open API which means that your TerrAvionimagery data works in many third-party applications such as 360viti from Fruition Sciences.


For more information about TerrAvion imagery or to get a quote, visit or call or text: Raul Peña at 510 798 3109 or send him an email:

TerrAvion vs. Satellite: Irrigation Management
15 April, 2019

Satellite imagery has been widely used in agriculture for years. It’s cheap and readily available, but what is the real value it provides to growers? For growers who are running precision ag programs, the answer is very little.

 One thing growers use TerrAvion aerial imagery for is to manage their irrigation systems. Our thermal imagery allows them to see irrigation issues such as nozzle failures, leakage, and water pressure issues before they negatively impact yield. TerrAvion thermal imagery picks up any slight changes in temperature in their fields. Recently irrigated parts of a field show up as cool zones in thermal imagery. Nozzle failures will show up as warm streaking along an otherwise cool thermal swath. Once identified, these issues are easily fixed, and doing so saves growers thousands of dollars that would have otherwise been lost if not identified with imagery.



Satellite Imagery for Irrigation Management

Satellite providers do not offer thermal products and thus, offer very limited value for detecting irrigation issues early enough to prevent loss of yield.


Vinyard Irrigation Systems

Growers use TerrAvion thermal imagery to manage irrigation systems in their vineyards. This grower used the thermal image above to identify a leak in the drip tape system. While he initially believed the rupture to be in the northern end of the block on the south of the service road, the imagery helped the grower pinpoint the source of the leak in the block on the north side of the service road. By using TerrAvion thermal imagery to pinpoint the location of the leakage, the grower prevented profit loss by noticing the issue quickly and accurately while also preserving the vines in the neighboring block.


Other TerrAvion Image Layers for Irrigation

Outside of thermal imagery, irrigation issues can be identified in high-resolution natural color imagery. In the image to the right, you can see the nozzle failure streaking in the soil. The satellite natural-color image from the two days later shows only a small cloud and its shadow, no signs of streaking.

Early NDVI imagery can also reveal irrigation issues after the issue has started to impact crop performance. In the TerrAvion NDVI image to the right, you can see the resulting low vigor patterns caused by the nozzle failures. Catching this issue at this early point in the season would still allow the grower to make a yield saving fix. The satellite NDVI imagery shows some variation, but nothing that indicates the present issue, a nozzle failure. 


For more information on using TerrAvion imagery for irrigation management, call or text: Raul Peña at 510 798 3109 or send him an email: 

New: Pansharpened Thermal and Synthetic Color Imagery
29 March, 2019

For the 2019 season, TerrAvion is offering a new line of imagery products to our customers. We will be introducing two new image layers to all customers, as well as ultra-high resolution imagery products to customers in select regions. Beginning May of 2019, TerrAvion will begin providing a new Pansharpened Thermal map layer along with a Synthetic Color layer will be available. As with all of our imagery products, these additional map layers are included in our standard product offering at no additional cost. 

Pansharpened Thermal

New TerrAvion Pansharpened thermal


TerrAvion’s new Pansharpened Thermal imagery is a much more detailed thermal product than our standard thermal. The pansharpened thermal combines the contrast of the near-infrared (NIR) camera and the thermal temperature information of the thermal camera. This combined product allows you to see field characteristics such as crop rows or other plant signatures that are clearly visible in infrared imagery but are not visible in our standard thermal product. Now, instead of having to flip to higher resolution image to add context to what you see in the 2 m resolution thermal imagery, the Pansharpened Thermal product provides users with a single high-resolution thermal image. 

 Synthetic Color

TerrAvion Synthetic Color 2019In the same way that the Pansharpened Thermal product is a combination of our standard thermal and infrared product, our Synthetic Natural Color imagery is a combination of our natural color product and infrared product. The result of this combined product is a higher resolution color image. Certain factors such as poor lighting can result in natural color imagery that lacks contrast and appears dull in color. The synthetic color product creates a color image that presents more contrast and detail that can be the difference between a detected issue and an undetected issue.

NDVI and CIR Imagery Enhancements

 ultra-high-resolution terravion ndvi 2019Standard TerrAvion NDVI and CIR imagery will also have a new look for the 2019 season. Specifically, 2019 NDVI and CIR will have an increase in baseline sensitivity, drastically reducing the signal to noise in CIR and NDVI imagery and sharper near-infrared wavelengths. Basically, we have made changes to our cameras and sensors that will deliver clearer, less noisy CIR and NDVI products to our customers. The end result will be NDVI and CIR products that appear to more detailed, crisper and easier to read, further enabling TerrAvion customers to make informed decisions. 


Ultra-High Resolution


TerrAvion ultra-high-resolution color imagery 2019In addition to the new imagery products and enhancements to our core imagery layers, TerrAvion will also be offering ultra-high-resolution, 10 cm per pixel imagery in select regions. While our standard 17 cm per pixel resolution is already considered "ultra-high-resolution" imagery in the agricultural industry, we wanted to take things one step further to offer an even higher resolution product to our customers.  


For more information

For more information on the TerrAvion high-resolution and ultra-high-resolution coverage zones, click here.  

To learn more about TerrAvion's new product line for the 2019 season, call or text: Raul Peña at  510 798 3109 or send him an email:


TerrAvion New Mobile App
14 March, 2019

TerrAvion's brand new mobile app is available now for the 2019 season. The new mobile app is faster than our previous app and has some great new features with more developments on the way. Most notably, users can drop pins in their fields and attach notes and pictures to them. The dynamic NDVI and thermal map layers are also visible in the mobile app.

Viewing your Fields

Users can browse or search for fields using the search button(magnifying glass in top right corner). When you open the search feature, you can browse through all of your fields, or you can click the filter button in the top right corner of your screen. It is possible to filter by farm, farmer, agronomist, or season. For customers who have a lot of maps in their account, these features make it quick and easy to find and navigate to the field of interest.

Drop a Pin with Notes and Photos

TerrAvion mobile app users now can drop a pin anywhere in their field and attach a note and/or photo to that pin. This feature is fundamental for scouting, allowing growers to make notes and take pictures of issues they see when walking their fields. Users can share these comments with other users. The app lets you edit and delete your pins and notes, as well as hide them so that they don’t obstruct your view when you are viewing your imagery.

Dynamic Thermal and NDVI Layers

Last year, TerrAvion introduced our auto-adjusted Dynamic Thermal and NDVI map layers on our desktop app. Dynamic map layer auto-adjust to pull out the most detail in any single image. Now, this feature is available in our mobile app as well. The dynamic maps bring issues to light when there is minimal variation in thermal or vigor layers. As with the desktop app, when the dynamic maps adjust for any given image, the colors of nearby fields will change. If you want to look at the dynamic layers for another field, just click on the map to adjust the thermal or vigor for that field & date. This feature will help users pinpoint and scout issues that may not have been evident in regular NDVI or thermal imagery.


The new mobile app is our fastest app to date. With decent cellular or WiFi service, or if you have downloaded imagery for offline use, the app functions with high speed and little lag, saving users time, otherwise wasted waiting for images to load.

Offline Storage

The new TerrAvion mobile app allows users to download image tiles for offline use. Once the images are downloaded on your phone, users will be able to view the downloaded fields even when they don't have cellular or WIFI service. You can delete saved maps when you are not using them to open up storage space on your mobile device.

Before downloading and installing our new app, remove your current TerrAvion app!
Click here to download the Android or iOS version of the new TerrAvion Mobile App. For more information, please watch the attached video, or contact

Precision Ag Needs High-Resolution Imagery - TerrAvion's 2019 Flight Schedules Are Available
05 March, 2019

For 2019, TerrAvion will be offering three high-resolution aerial imagery subscription packages for California; one flight package designed for coastal growers, one designed for inland growers, and a Viticulture flight schedule specifically designed for wine grape growers.

Why TerrAvion's imagery?

TerrAvion's high-resolution imagery subscriptions consist of multiple imagery layers. Every flight cycle will deliver a natural color, a standard vigor and a dynamic vigor image layer, an infrared, a thermal, and a soil type layer. These layers provide all the visual insights that are necessary to do precision ag. They make it possible to monitor nutrient needs, water stress, and pest infestations amongst others.

The Flight Schedules

The California Coastal flight plan consists of 28 flights and is designed to accommodate the imagery data needs of the region’s growers at key points throughout the season including four bi-weekly images starting at the end of March and running until early May, at which point weekly flights will begin through the end of October to assist with scouting and sampling efforts as well as weed, fertility, soil, irrigation, pest, disease, and other issues throughout the season.


The California Inland flight plan consists of 15 flights starting with two bi-weekly cycles in May, followed by 10 weekly cycles between the beginning of June and the end of July. It concludes with four bi-weekly cycles starting in August and running through the beginning of October.


The California Viticulture plan is TerrAvion's highest flight cycle frequency package, consisting of 56 flights starting in March and running through October. The high-frequency flight cycle will give the grower an omnipresent view of the changes in every block.


The viticulture plan starts in March with seven weekly cycles. Then flight cycles will become be shorter, at a three and four-day schedule running into October. The last flight cycle will be in a week towards the end of October. This package is for grape growers who require a high frequency of imagery throughout the season.


Interested to learn where else TerrAvion flies? Check out our full flight schedule information here!

28 February, 2019

Raúl Enrique PeñaTerrAvion is pleased to announce its recent hire of Raúl Enrique Peña, joining TerrAvion as the Regional Vice President for California. In this role, Raúl is responsible for providing TerrAvion’s high-resolution aerial imagery to growers throughout the state to support their efforts to maximize yields utilizing timely and precise intelligence specific to their vineyards and farms.


“I am excited to represent TerrAvion, the largest provider of aerial imagery in the United States, to the agricultural industry throughout California”, said TerrAvion RVP Raúl Peña. “It is essential to provide value to our clients, from vineyards to orchards to farms, by enabling them to maximize yields through the power of easily accessible data that is specific, timely and precise.”


Raúl brings his passion and experience of carefully listening to his customers to TerrAvion. He is looking forward to providing them with solutions that meet their unique needs.

Trade Show Booth # Information
Unified Wine and Grape Symposium
04 Feb, 2020 to 06 Feb, 2020
Sacramento, CA
B732 TerrAvion helps vineyards take a high-tech approach to improve yield and quality, with the largest cloud-based aerial imaging and data analytics service for agriculture. Every week in the 2020 growing season, TerrAvion will be capturing over 100M acres of row-level imagery and delivering it to growers and agronomists overnight so they can target scouting, vary inputs, and intervene early on the inevitable issues that crop up on every farm.
Title Name Email Phone
Regional Vice President Raúl Peña 5107983109
Director of Marketing Ria Van Hoef 5107983109